Error trapping with Dyalog APL

From APL Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

To write bug-free code in a complex system and to forecast all errors is impossible. Therefore, implementing some kind of error trapping in an application which is supposed to run in a productive environment is a must. But to do this in a general and efficient manner is not easy. This article discusses techniques to solve this problem.


Versions covered

The techniques we are going to discuss have been available in Dyalog APL for a long time. When you try to implement error trapping you should be very careful: it is easy to implement a non-interruptible loop. If this happens you have to kill the process in the task manager and the workspace is lost, so it is a good idea to save the workspace before you execute code after a change.


When an application is executed in a production environment, error trapping can be used to solve the following goals:

  • Save a workspace as a snapshot reflecting the state of the application when the error appeared. This makes it easy to analyze a problem, and sometimes it is the only way to do so.
  • After having saved a snapshot it might be possible to restart the application. This might enable the user to run the application with different data, or to run different parts of the application on the same data.
  • Prevent the user from interrupting the application by pressing the keys the strong and the weak interrupt are associated with.
  • Continue execution in case a developer has forgotten to remove a stop vector.

When an application is started, it needs to be initialized. If an error occurs at this early stage, normally there is no way to recover. Once an application is fully initialized, it might be a good idea to try to restart it. However, if this procedure crashes itself, we must prevent an endless loop from generating tons of useless snapshot workspaces.


It is good programming style to avoid using numbers in code. Instead of talking about 1001, for example, we should use a meaningful name:

⎕CS 'Events' #.⎕NS ''
⎕FX 'r←StopVector' 'r←1001'
⎕FX 'r←WeakInterrupt' 'r←1002'
⎕FX 'r←StrongInterrupt' 'r←1003'

In a large system you want those to be constants, so a user cannot change them. That's why they are niladic functions.

We need also a user-defined event for restarting the application. This is explained soon:


According to the help file, users should use the range from 500 to 999 to define their own events.

Setting ⎕TRAP

⎕TRAP allows us to implement a general mechanism on a global level. For discussion purposes let's assume the following:

  1. ⎕LX is set to run function Run
  2. This function calls 3 sub-functions: Initial, Work and Shutdown
  3. Initial initializes the application: it opens files, interprets an INI file, takes the Windows registry into account, builds the GUI and so forth.
  4. Work simply runs ⎕DQ
  5. Shutdown cleans up: it closes files, says good-by.

Solving the stop vector problem

Let's start with solving the stop vector problem:

⎕TRAP←⊂(#.Events.StopVector 'E' '→⎕LC')

#.Events.StopVector returns 1001 which is the event number a stop vector is associated with. As soon as APL stops on a stop vector ⎕EN is set to 1001. This event can be caught with ⎕TRAP, so we can tell APL to execute ('E') the expression given as third argument. In this case it tells APL to simply ignore stop vectors by resuming execution.

Preventing users from interrupting an application

The same technique can be used to prevent the user from interrupting the application, accidentally or purposely. Depending on the type of the application it might be a good idea to allow the user to interrupt the application by pressing either the key for the weak or the strong interrupt, to ask the user for confirmation and then to restart the application. This would allow the user to quit a lengthy operation that needs more time than expected.

Here, however, we will use this simple approach:

events←#.Events.WeakInterrupt #.Events.StrongInterrupt
⎕TRAP,←⊂(events 'E' '→⎕LC')

Restarting the application

For reasons explained in a minute we now have to define the “Restart the application” procedure. For this, for the first time we do not use the 'E' statement but the 'C' statement. The C is short for Cut back. This instructs APL to cut the status indicator back to the level where ⎕TRAP is localized – that is not necessarily where it was set – and execute the expression in the 3rd argument there. However, if ⎕TRAP is not localized at all, i.e. it is in the workspace, the status indicator is cut back completely and the expression is executed in the workspace.

⎕TRAP,←⊂(#.Events.RestartAppl 'C' '→∆Restart')

To make this work the function in which ⎕TRAP is localized must have a label ∆Restart or a function that returns a valid line number to branch to of course.

Catching Errors

If an unexpected error occurs, we want to execute a particular function to do the hard work.

⎕TRAP,←⊂((0 1000) 'E' '#.HandleError' )

The 0 stands for all the events from 1 to 999 while the 1000 stands for all events larger than 1000.

⎕TRAP may contain more than one error catching group. Since the contents of ⎕TRAP is scanned from left to right, a statement will ONLY be executed for an event not processed earlier. That is the reason why we must define the restart event first.

For example, in the following statement:

⎕TRAP←(333 'E' 'expA') (0 'E' 'expB')

event 333 will be caught by the 1st group and NOT by the 2nd even though 0 stands for “events from 1 to 999”. Only the expression expA will be executed.

The #.HandleError function

The #.HandleError function should do at least the following:

  • Perhaps neutralize ⎕LX
  • Save the ⎕DM and ⎕EN settings
  • Save the snapshot
  • Maybe create an HTML page with general information about the error
  • Ask the user about a restart
  • Either try a restart of shut the application down


Developers and others

Of course the error trapping mechanism must distinguish between developers and others. Often it is good enough to check the APL version: use error trapping in case of runtime, otherwise not. If this is not possible, because some or all of the users are running the development version too, you can specify a parameter to tell the application that you are a developer. By default the application can then use error trapping.

Testing Error Trapping

Keep in mind that you want to have an easy opportunity to test the system with error trapping. So you may need another parameter that tells the system that error trapping has to be used. Last but not least, there should be an easy opportunity to let the application crash on purpose. I prefer to have a “developers menu”, which is displayed only to developers. Among other useful commands it offers a “Let's crash” option.

Control Structure :Trap

If you use :Trap, keep in mind that ⎕TRAP and :Trap are both taken into account. That means that in case of

:Trap 0

the error caused by the -'a' statement is caught by the :Else, while the . is caught by the ⎕TRAP setting.

When using :Trap try to be as specific as possible. For example, this code is faulty:

:Trap 0
	filename ⎕FTIE 0
	filename ⎕FCREATE 0

because it tries to create a file not only if this file does not already exist but also if the current user lacks the right to tie it, for example because somebody else has already tied it exclusively. Therefore, it is a better to be specific:

:Trap 22
	filename ⎕FTIE 0
	filename ⎕FCREATE 0

The best idea, however, is to use ⎕NEXISTS to check the file for already being created. In general it is a good idea to use error trapping only for extraordinary problems.

The ⎕SIGNAL system function

Note that an event which is ⎕SIGNALled can be intercepted with ⎕TRAP but not :Trap If you execute this function:

 ⎕TRAP←501 'E' '⎕←''caught by ⎕TRAP'''
 :Trap 501
     ⎕SIGNAL 501
     ⎕←'Caugth in :Else'

you get this:

caught by ⎕TRAP

Ensure future trouble

A very easy way to create problems in the future is to do this:

:Trap 0

This technique is called “silent trapping”. If something is going wrong, do not take care and do not tell anybody about it!

Switching Error Trapping on or off

When you use error trapping, make sure that you can switch off error trapping on a general level. The easiest way to implement this idea is something like this:

:Trap #.ErrorTrapFlag/0

If the flag is true, error trapping is active, if not, the DoSomeThing statement will fail if an error occurs. This makes is much easier to debug an application.

You might need a more sophisticated mechanism for this, because under some circumstances you want to switch off most but not all error trapping statements. For example, if you use a logging mechanism which is logging every user action for analyzing purposes, the code doing this may cause an interrupt itself, for example because the disk is full which holds the logging files. In such a case it might be inappropriate that the logging code breaks the application. Therefore, you might control this code with :Trap-statements.

In such a case it might be a good idea to control the behavior of the application on different levels for code which is really essential in terms of business logic, for example, and for code which is not essential.

But even in such a case the problem should be communicated. I found the idea of a watchdog application very useful, which, among other tasks, is listening to UDP telegrams on a particular port. An application in trouble can then send a telegram to the watchdog, telling about the problem. Using a type of error class, the client can tell the watchdog about the seriousness of the problem, and the watchdog can then decide to simply display it on it's GUI or send a SMS message or/and an email to the admin.


The below workspace contains all the code needed to implement the ideas discussed above.
(⎕IO ⎕ML ⎕WX)←1 1 3

∇ Info;∆
  ⎕←∆←'Error Trapping Sample Workspace'
  ⎕←'First check the setting in function:'
  ⎕←'Then run function:'
  ⎕←'#.App.Run (0|1)'
  ⎕←'Specify a 1 to enforce an error during the initialisation phase,'
  ⎕←'otherwise a 0'
  ⎕←'To enfore a "restartable" error, press the "Let''s crash" button'
  ⎕←'Kai Jaeger ⋄ APL Team Ltd ⋄ 15/2/2007'

∇ Reset
  :Trap 0
      App.CloseApp ⍬

:Namespace App
⍝ === VARIABLES ===






    ∆Caption←'Error Trapping Sample'


⍝ === End of variables definition ===

    (⎕IO ⎕ML ⎕WX ⎕DIV)←1 0 1 1

    ∇ {r}←{parms}Ask Question;∆STYLE;∆BTNS;∆CAPTION;∆EDGESTYLE;allowed;f;∆DEFAULT;∆
     ⍝⍝ Ask a question
     ⍝⍝ By default, 3 buttons (Y/N/Cancel) are displayed. You may change this by setting ∆BTNS (default=3) to 2
     ⍝⍝ The result is one of (1 2 3)
      :If 0<⎕NC'parms'
      :AndIf ~0∊⍴parms
          allowed←'Style' 'Caption' 'Btns' 'Default' 'EdgeStyle'
          ⍎(0∊⍴parms←CheckParms parms allowed)/'. ⍝ should never happen in production'
          ⍎(0∊⍴GetVarsFromParms parms)/'. ⍝ should never happen in production'
      :If ~(⊂∆BTNS)∊1 2 3
          'Invalid parameter: BTNS'⎕SIGNAL 11
      :Select ∆BTNS
      :Case 1
          ∆,←⊂'Btns' 'OK'
      :Case 2
          ∆,←⊂'Btns'('YES' 'NO')
      :Case 3
          ∆,←⊂'Btns'('YES' 'NO' 'CANCEL')
      ∆,←⊂'Event'('MsgBtn1' 'MsgBtn2' 'MsgBtn3')1
      'f'⎕WC ∆

    ∇ BuildGui dummy;∆
      ∆,←⊂'Caption' 'Error-Trapping Test Workspace'
      ∆,←⊂'Coord' 'Pixel'
      ∆,←⊂'Size'(300 350)
      ∆,←⊂'Posn'(35 20)
      ∆,←⊂'Event'#.Events.QuitDQ 1
      ⎕WC ∆
      ∆,←⊂'Caption' 'Let''s crash!'
      ∆,←⊂'Size'(35 200)
      ∆,←⊂'Event' 'Select' 'onSelectCrashBtn'
      ∆,←⊂'Default' 1
      'crash'⎕WC ∆
      ∆,←⊂'Caption' 'Close'
      ∆,←⊂'Size'(10 10)
      ∆,←⊂'Posn'(5 5)
      ∆,←⊂'Visible' 0
      ∆,←⊂'Event' 'Select' 'onCloseApp'
      ∆,←⊂'Cancel' 1
      'cancel'⎕WC ∆
     ⍝⍝⍝⍝⍝⍝ This does not work in 10.1 ⍝⍝⍝⍝⍝
      ∆,←⊂'Coord' 'Prop'
      ∆,←⊂'Size'(⍬ 98)
      'sb.f1'⎕WC ∆
     ⍝ sb.f1.Size←sb.Size-6 10 ⍝ only needed in 10.1

    ∇ R←CheckParms Parms∆Allowed;Allowed;Parms;⎕IO;Depth;Bool;Buffer;⎕ML
     ⍝⍝ Check a parameter vector for valid entries. Valid entries are defined by Allowed.
     ⍝S Allowed is interpreted as a vector of possible valid names.
     ⍝S If ALLOWED is empty, no checks are performed.
     ⍝S R becomes a matrix. [;1] contains the parameter names, [;2] the values
     ⍝S In case of an invalid parameter, an error is generated by ⎕SIGNAL.
     ⍝S If no parameter is defined:  R←0 2⍴' '
     ⍝S If something is wrong with the data structures, R gets an empty vector.
     ⍝V Version: 3.0
      R←0 2⍴''                            ⍝ Initialyze the result
      :If ~0∊⍴Parms∆Allowed
          (Parms Allowed)←Parms∆Allowed   ⍝ Separate right argument
          :If 0∊⍴Parms
              R←0 2⍴''
          :If 0∊⍴Allowed
              'Invalid Parameter'⎕SIGNAL 11
          :If 2=≡Parms
          :AndIf 2=⍴Parms
          :If 3>≡Parms                    ⍝ Handle...
          :AndIf 2∨.≠↑∘⍴¨Parms
              Parms←,⊂Parms               ⍝ ...Parms!
          :If 0<+/Bool←2<↑∘⍴¨Parms
          :If 2∨.≠↑∘⍴¨Parms←,Parms        ⍝ Check for proper structure.
              R←''                        ⍝ Structure invalid, complete faulty!
          Parms←↑,/Parms                  ⍝ Make simple vector
          Depth←≡Parms                    ⍝ Save the Depth
          :If 0=Depth
              R←0 2⍴''                    ⍝ Ready if empty: nothing right, nothing wrong...
          :If Depth∊0 1                   ⍝ Jump if not simple
              Parms←,⊂Parms               ⍝ Enforce a nested vector
          :If 0≠2|⍴Parms←,Parms           ⍝ Jump if even number of items
              R←''                        ⍝ Structur invalid, get out!
              Buffer←((⌊0.5×⍴Parms),2)⍴Parms ⍝ Build a matrix
              Buffer[;1]←' '~¨⍨ToUpper¨Buffer[;1]
              :If ~0∊⍴Allowed
                  :If (|≡Allowed)∊0 1     ⍝ Jump if Allowed is not simple
                      Allowed←⊂Allowed    ⍝ Enforce nested
                  Allowed←,Allowed        ⍝ Enforce a vector
                  Bool←Buffer[;1]∊Allowed ⍝ Column 1 must be member of Allowed
                  :If 1∨.≠Bool
                      ('Invalid Parameter: ',1↓↑,/' ',¨(~Bool)/Buffer[;1])⎕SIGNAL 11
              R←Buffer                    ⍝ All is fine

    ∇ CloseApp dummy
      :Trap 0

    ∇ {htmlfilename}←CreateHtmlInfoPage wsid;tag;html;wsid;head;htmlfilename
     ⍝⍝ Create or overwrite an HTML file with useful information about the snapshot
      tag←{⍺←'p' ⋄ ⎕TC[2 3],'<',⍺,'>',⍵,'</',⍺,'>'}
      html←'h1'tag wsid
      html,←'h2'tag'Previous WSID'
      html,←tag #.Error.WSID
      html,←'h2'tag'Error Message'
      html,←'h2'tag'Status Indicator'
      :If 0∊⍴#.Error.QSI
          html,←tag'--- Empty!'
      html,←'h2'tag'Error Line'
      :If 1=⍴⎕LC
          html,←⎕LC[2]{0∊⍴body←⎕NR ⍵:'-- cannot provide information on "',⍵,'"' ⋄ ⊃,/tag(1+⍺)⊃body}2⊃⎕XSI
      html←'style="font-family:Dyalog Std"'{w←¯1+⍵⍳'>' ⋄ (w↑⍵),(' ',⍺),w↓⍵}'body'tag html
      head←'title'tag'Error Workspace ',wsid
      head,←'<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=ascii">'
      head←'head'tag head
      html←'<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "">',⎕TC[2 3],html
      ⎕NUNTIE htmlfilename ⎕NCREATE⍠'Unique' 1⊢0
      html ⎕NPUT htmlfilename 1

    ∇ R←{CalledFromNamespace}GetVarsFromParms Parms;⎕IO;∆DUMMY;⎕ML
     ⍝⍝ Takes parameters like
     ⍝⍝     ('NEW' true) ('CAPTION' 'A Title')
     ⍝⍝ and create variables ∆NEW and ∆CAPTION from this.
     ⍝S The parameter vars are created in the namespace, where GetVarsFromParms
     ⍝S was called from or, if "CalledFromNamespace" was specified, within this
     ⍝S specified Namespace.
     ⍝S R is a list of the created variable names.
     ⍝S R is an empty vector, if the operation fails.
     ⍝V Version: 3.2.0
      :If 0=⎕NC'CalledFromNamespace'
      ⎕CS CalledFromNamespace            ⍝ Change to the namespace this fns was called from
      Parms⍪←'DUMMY'⍬                    ⍝ DUMMY is added to make the statement run if Parms is empty.
      Parms[;1]←'∆',¨Parms[;1]           ⍝ Add "∆" to avoid name conflicts.
      ⍎(↑,/' ',¨Parms[;1]),'←Parms[;2]'  ⍝ Create external parameters.
      R←¯1↓Parms[;1]                     ⍝ ¯1↓ drops the DUMMY.

    ∇ HandleError type;Wsid_;Opt_;Rc_;Path_;wsid;oldWsid;⎕IO;⎕ML;txt;saveTrap;restartFlag
     ⍝⍝ General error handler which is executed by ⎕TRAP in production in case of an error
     ⍝⍝ Creates an error workspace (if not already to many Error Workspaces) and then
     ⍝⍝ signals a "Restart" event which should be captured on a high level by the application
     ⍝⍝ type←0 = Early state, restart would not work
     ⍝⍝ type←1 = Application is fully initialzed, restart should work
      saveTrap←⎕TRAP            ⍝ Remember original setting
      ⎕TRAP←(0 1000)'S'         ⍝ To prevent endles loops
      ErrorCounter=←+1          ⍝ Allows us to keep control over the number of snapshots
      Color.Red SetStatusbar'Error Snapshot is going to be saved...'
      :If #.INI.MaxNumberOfErrorWorkspaces>ErrorCounter
          :If 0≠LastErrorWasSavedAt
          :AndIf #.INI.ErrorDelay>(24 60 60⊥3↑3↓⎕TS)-LastErrorWasSavedAt
          ⍝ Too many error in a too small space of time
          ⍝ To prevent error trapping from creating countless
          ⍝ error workspaces we finish now.
              txt,←⊂'Sorry, we have encountered too many problems.'
              txt,←⊂'Therefore, the application is closed now.'
              ('Btns' 1)('Style' 'Error')('Caption' 'Error Trapping Sample')Ask txt
              Off 1
          :If #.INI.SaveErrorWS
              '.'⎕WS'Cursor' 1
              SaveWsid wsid
              CreateHtmlInfoPage wsid
          LastErrorWasSavedAt←24 60 60⊥3↑3↓⎕TS
          txt←'' 'Houston, we have a problem.' ''
          :If 2=⎕NC'wsid'
              txt,←⊂'System details have been saved in:'
          :If type=0
              txt,←⊂'The application cannot proceed!'
              ('Btns' 1)('Style' 'Error')('Caption' 'Error Trapping Sample')Ask txt
              Off 1
              txt,←⊂'The system will try to restart when you press "Yes".'
              restartFlag←yes=('Btns' 2)('Style' 'Error')('Caption' 'Error Trapping Sample')Ask txt
              :If ~restartFlag
                  Off 1
              :Else ⍝ okay, give it a second go:
                  sb.f1.Text←'Try to restart..'
                  ⎕DL 2
                  ⎕SIGNAL #.Events.RestartAppl ⍝ Try to restart
          txt,←⊂'Sorry, we have encountered too many problems.'
          txt,←⊂'Therefore, the application is closed now.'
          ('Btns' 1)('Style' 'Error')('Caption' 'Error Trapping Sample')Ask txt
          Off 1

    ∇ Initial enforeEarlyError
     ⍝ Open files...
     ⍝ Create TCP listener...
     ⍝ Open connection to the database...
      LastErrorWasSavedAt←0 ⍝ No error workspaces...
      ErrorCounter←0        ⍝ ... so far
      BuildGui ⍬

    ∇ r←IsDeveloper
     ⍝ Returns 1 if application is run in he Development version of APL

    ∇ Off status
      :If IsDeveloper
          :If status
              . ⍝ Developer: )RESET followed by #.Reset may be appropriate

    ∇ Run enforeEarlyError;⎕TRAP
     ⍝⍝ Main function
      ⎕TRAP←SetTrap 0
      Initial enforeEarlyError

    ∇ SaveWsid wsid
      :Trap 0
          ⎕SAVE wsid
          ⍝ TThat should not happen but can in case of WS FULL,
          ⍝ lack of access rights or when in the Tracer...

    ∇ {color}SetStatusbar msg
      color←{2=⎕NC ⍵:⍎⍵ ⋄ Color.Default}'color'

    ∇ r←SetTrap type
     ⍝⍝ Set ⎕TRAP accordingly to the current user (developer, others)
     ⍝⍝ type is:
     ⍝⍝ 0 = early stage (#.App.Initial is running, for example)
     ⍝⍝ 1 = application is fully initialized, restarted might be possible
      :If IsDeveloper
          r,←⊂(1002 1003)'S'
          :If #.INI.TestErrorTrapping
              :If 1=type ⍝ Does a restart make possibly sense?!
                  r,←⊂#.Events.RestartAppl'C' '→∆Restart'
              r,←⊂(0 1000)'E'('#.App.HandleError ',⍕type)
          r,←⊂(0 1000)'S'
          r,←⊂#.Events.StopVector'E' '→⎕LC'
          r,←⊂#.Events.(WeakInterrupt StrongInterrupt)'E' '→⎕LC'
          :If 1=type ⍝ Does a restart make possibly sense?!
              r,←⊂#.Events.RestartAppl'C' '→∆Restart'
          r,←⊂(0 1000)'E'('#.App.HandleError ',⍕type)

    ∇ Shutdown
      :Trap 0
          CloseApp ⍬
      Off 0

    ∇ string←ToUpper string;TOUPP
      'TOUPP'⎕NA'I4 USER32.C32|CharUpperA =0T'

    ∇ Work;⎕TRAP
     ⍝⍝ Basically run ⎕DQ
     ⍝⍝ In charge for restart application after an error
      ⎕TRAP←SetTrap 1
      '.'⎕WS'Cursor' 0
      :If ErrorCounter=0
          Color.Green SetStatusbar'I''m fine, thank you'
          Color.Blue SetStatusbar'So far ',(⍕ErrorCounter),' snapshots saved'

    ∇ onCloseApp msg;ref
      CloseApp ⍬

    ∇ onSelectCrashBtn msg
      . ⍝ To enforce an error; Press <Ctrl+Enter> in this line

    :Namespace Color
⍝ === VARIABLES ===

        Blue←0 0 255


        Green←0 255 0

        Red←255 0 0

⍝ === End of variables definition ===

        (⎕IO ⎕ML ⎕WX ⎕DIV)←1 0 1 1

    :Namespace cancel
        (⎕IO ⎕ML ⎕WX ⎕DIV)←1 0 1 1

    :Namespace crash
        (⎕IO ⎕ML ⎕WX ⎕DIV)←1 0 1 1

    :Namespace sb
        (⎕IO ⎕ML ⎕WX ⎕DIV)←1 0 1 1

        :Namespace f1
⍝ === VARIABLES ===

            BCol←255 0 0

            Text←'Error Snapshot is going to be saved...'

⍝ === End of variables definition ===

            (⎕IO ⎕ML ⎕WX ⎕DIV)←1 0 1 1

:Namespace Error

    ⎕ML  ←0 ⍝ *** DO NOT change these system variables here, only after the variables definition

⍝ === VARIABLES ===

    _,←'SYNTAX ERROR' 'Off[3] . ⍝ Developer: )RESET followed by #.Reset may be appropriate'
    _,←,⊂'                                                                   ∧'

    _,←⊂'#.App.Off[3]             '
    _,←⊂'#.App.HandleError[56]    '
    _,←⊂'#.App.Work[15]           '
    _,←⊂'#.App.Run[4]             '

    SaveTrap←((1002 1003) 'S') ((,501) 'C' '→∆Restart') ((0 1000) 'E' '#.App.HandleError 1') ((0 1000) 'S')


    ⎕ex '_'

⍝ === End of variables definition ===

    (⎕IO ⎕ML ⎕WX ⎕DIV)←1 0 1 1

:Namespace Events
⍝ === VARIABLES ===



⍝ === End of variables definition ===

    (⎕IO ⎕ML ⎕WX ⎕DIV)←1 0 1 1

    ∇ r←StopVector

    ∇ r←StrongInterrupt

    ∇ r←WeakInterrupt

:Namespace INI
⍝ === VARIABLES ===






⍝ === End of variables definition ===

    (⎕IO ⎕ML ⎕WX ⎕DIV)←1 0 1 1

    ∇ Set
      TestErrorTrapping←1            ⍝ Normally, error trapping is not used in a Developer Version
      MaxNumberOfErrorWorkspaces←5   ⍝ How often is it possible for a user to restart the system?
      ErrorDelay←5                   ⍝ Number of seconds until the next error WS is saved
      SaveErrorWS←1                  ⍝ Should a snapshot workspace be saved?
      ErrorFolder←''                 ⍝ Folder the snapshot WS will be saved in


See also

External links



APL development [edit]
Interface SessionTyping glyphs (on Linux) ∙ FontsText editors
Publications IntroductionsLearning resourcesSimple examplesAdvanced examplesMnemonicsStandardsA Dictionary of APLCase studiesDocumentation suitesBooksPapersVideosPeriodicalsTerminology (Chinese, German) ∙ Neural networksError trapping with Dyalog APL (in forms)
Sharing code Backwards compatibilityAPLcartAPLTreeAPL-CationDfns workspaceTatinCider
Implementation Developers (APL2000, Dyalog, GNU APL community, IBM, IPSA, STSC) ∙ ResourcesOpen-sourceMagic functionPerformanceAPL hardware