# SHARP APL

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SHARP APL running under DOSBox

SHARP APL was an APL implementation offered by I.P. Sharp Associates (IPSA), originally as part of its time-sharing service and later as a stand-alone product. It was split off from STSC's APL*PLUS, which until then had been sold jointly by the two companies. SHARP APL was the source of many developments in flat array theory, driven by Ken Iverson and other APL designers at IPSA.

## Primitive functions

### Arithmetic

#### Scalar

All scalar functions have rank zero.

Glyph Monadic Dyadic
`+` Conjugate/Identity Addition
`-` Negate Subtraction
`×` Signum Multiplication
`÷` Reciprocal Division
`*` Exponential Power
`⍟` Natural Logarithm Base-⍺ Logarithm
`|` Magnitude Residue
`!` Factorial Out-Of/Combinations
`⌊` Floor Minimum
`⌈` Ceiling Maximum
`○` Pi Times Circle functions
`∧` And/Least Common Multiple (LCM)
`∨` Or/Greatest Common Divisor (GCD)
`⍲` Nand
`⍱` Nor
`~` Not See Miscellaneous
`?` Roll See Non-scalar

#### Non-scalar

Glyph Rank Monadic Ranks Dyadic
`⌹` 2 Matrix inverse ∞ 2 Matrix divide
`?` See Scalar * * Deal
`⊤` ∞ ∞ Encode
`⊥` ∞ ∞ Decode

### Relational

Glyph Rank Monadic Ranks Dyadic
`=` See Miscellaneous 0 0 Equals
`≠` See Miscellaneous 0 0 Not Equals
`<` See Structural 0 0 Less Than
`≤` 0 0 Less Than or Equal
`≥` 0 0 Greater Than or Equal
`>` See Structural 0 0 Greater Than
`≡` ∞ ∞ Match
`∊` 0 ∞ Membership
`⍷` ∞ ∞ Find

### Indexing

Glyph Rank Monadic Ranks Dyadic
`@` See Miscellaneous 0 ∞ From
`⍳` 1 Count 1 0 Index Of
`⍸` ∞ ∞ Index
`⍋` Numeric Grade up ∞ ∞ Character Grade up
`⍒` Numeric Grade down ∞ ∞ Character Grade down

### Structural

Glyph Rank Monadic Ranks Dyadic
`⍴` Shape of 1 ∞ Reshape
`↑` See Miscellaneous 1 ∞ Take
`↓` Raze 1 ∞ Drop
`<` Enclose/Box See Relational
`⊃` Conditional Enclose ∞ ∞ Link
`>` 0 Disclose/Open See Relational
`,` Ravel ∞ ∞ Catenate
`⍪` Table ∞ ∞ Catenate-Down
`⌽` 1 Reverse 0 1 Rotate
`⊖` Reverse-Down ∞ ∞ Rotate-Down
`⍉` Monadic Transpose 0 ∞ Dyadic Transpose

### Miscellaneous

Glyph Rank Monadic Ranks Dyadic
`⊣` Stop ∞ ∞ Left
`⊢` Pass ∞ ∞ Right
`≠` Nubsieve See Relational
`↑` Nub See Structural
`=` Nubin See Relational
`~` See Scalar ∞ ∞ Less
`@` 1 All See Indexing
`⍕` Monadic Format * ∞ Dyadic Format
`⍎` * Execute

## Primitive Operators

Glyph Operands Ranks Monadic Call Dyadic Call
`/` `f` `∞` Reduce
`⌿` `f` `∞` Reduce-down
`\` `f` `∞` Scan
`⍀` `f` `∞` Scan-down
`/` `m` `∞` Copy/Compress
`⌿` `m` `∞` Copy-down/Compress-down
`\` `m` `∞` Expand
`⍀` `m` `∞` Expand-down
`⊂` `f` `∞` `rf lf` Swap
`&` `f` `∞` `∞ ∞` Select
`⍤` `f` `g` `mg` `mg mg` On (close Over)
`⍤` `f` `n` `n` `n n` Rank
`⍤` `m` `g` `mg` `mg mg` Cut
`⍥` `f` `g` `mg` `mg mg` Upon (close Atop)
`¨` `f` `g` `mg` `mg mg` Under
`¨` `m` `g` `mg` With (Bind)
`¨` `f` `n` `mf`
`.` `f` `g` `2` `∞ ∞` Alternant Inner-product
`.` `m` `g` `∞ ∞` Tie, Outer-product
`.` `f` `m` `mf` Ply

## Implementation

### Numeric types

SHARP originally supported only real numbers using double (8-byte) precision. Numbers were stored in one of three types:

• Boolean, with one bit per value
• Integer, with four bytes per value
• Floating, with eight bytes per value

SATN-40 describes the addition of complex numbers to SHARP APL.

## SHARP APL Technical Notes

Features of SHARP APL were documented in "technical notes" issued by IPSA. These notes are numbered following the scheme "SATN-0". Earlier notes typically had no author listed. A pdf collection of SHARP APL Technical Notes is hosted at jsoftware.com, as are html transcriptions of some notes, linked in the table below.

Number Issued Revised Author Title
0 1976-01-01 SATN Introduction
1 1976-01-01 TASKID
2 5 1979-02-14 Control Messages
3 1976-01-01 ⎕OUT
4 2 1978-04-01 N-tasks and B-tasks
5 2 1978-08-01 Batch APL
6 1976-01-01 Execute
7 1976-01-01 Latent Expression
8 2 1978-03-01 HSPRINT
9 1 1979-08-01 John D. Burger Usage Inquiry System
10 2 1978-06-01 SORTREQ
11 1976-01-01 )RESET
12 1976-01-01 )COPY
13 1978-03-10 Early Warnings
14 2 1978-08-15 Package - A New Variable Type
15 Index
16 1976-04-20 File System Must-Write Buffers
17 1976-06-01 Formatting Primitive
18 1976-07-01 ⎕FMT
19 1977-01-01 Fileprint
20 4 1978-06-01 System Variables, Session Variables and System Functions
21 1 1978-06-01 ⎕WS and ⎕FD
22 2 1979-01-01 Bob Bernecky and Mike Symes APL Worspace Transfer
23 1977-06-10 1 1978-07-15 Bob Bernecky Comparison Tolerance (web)
24 1977-03-23 Symbol Table
25 1977-05-15 Extensions to Argument Passing
26 1977-09-10 Enhancements to the File System
28 1977-07-11 Terminal Control
29 1978-06-15 System Time and Timestamps
30 1979-01-01 Numeric Display
31 1979-02-01 Line Editing in SHARP APL
32 1979-03-30 Shared Variables
33 1979-03-26 Event Trapping
34 1980-08-15 Bob Bernecky Replication
35 1980-08-15 Peter Wooster Extended Upgrade and Downgrade
36 1980-04-20 Ken Iverson Direct Definition
37 1 1982-06-01 John D. Burger IBM 3270 User Guide
39 1981-06-01 Richard Lathwell The SHARP APL S-task Interface
40 1981-06-20 Eugene McDonnell Complex Numbers (web)
41 1981-06-20 Ken Iverson Composition and Enclosure (web)
42 1982-04-01 Ken Iverson Determinant-Like Functions Produced by the Dot-Operator (web)
43 1982-11-05 Peter Wooster Improved Display for Enclosed Arrays and a New System Variable ⎕PS
44 1983-04-02 Robert C. Metzger Enhancements to Event Handling
45 1983-05-02 Various Language Extensions of May 1983
46 1983-08-05 Eric Iverson Enhancements Provided in Update #1 to the May 1983 Release of SHARP APL
47 1983-10-01 Mike Symes IBM 3270 User Guide (IDSH)
48 1983-11-30 John D. Burger Workspace 1 HCPRINT

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Historical A Programming LanguageA+ (A) ∙ APL#APL\360APL/700APL\1130APL\3000APL.68000APL*PLUSAPL.jlAPL.SVAPLXIverson notationIVSYS/7090NARSngn/aplopenAPLOperators and FunctionsPATRowanSAXSHARP APLRationalized APLVisualAPL (APLNext) ∙ VS APLYork APL
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