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APL uses a large range of [[glyphs|special graphic symbols]] to represent most functions and operators. While keyboard mappings become memorized over time, entering APL characters can frustrate the beginner. However, a study involving high school students found that typing and using APL characters did not hinder the students in any measurable way. There are several convenient ways to enter the glyphs.
APL uses a range of [[glyphs|special graphic symbols]] to represent most functions and operators. While keyboard mappings become [[mnemonics|memorized]] over time, entering APL characters can frustrate the [[learning resources|beginner]]. However, a study involving high school students found that typing and using APL characters did not hinder the students in any measurable way. There are several convenient ways to enter the glyphs.
__TOC__
[[File:Dyalog US keyboard.jpg|thumb|right|US keyboard with [[Dyalog APL]] glyphs]]
== Hardware ==


== How to Set up an APL Keyboard ==
Once the keyboard map is configured to one's liking, it may be beneficial (especially for new users learning APL) to have a keyboard with APL symbols. There are a few solutions to this, such as purchasing a dedicated desktop keyboard for APL or, for laptops and desktops, obtaining an APL keyboard decal set:
 
* Dyalog sells [https://www.dyalog.com/apl-font-keyboard.htm#mainContent US English, UK English, Danish and German keyboards] with APL glyphs pre-printed onto the key caps.
 
* Unicomp sells both [https://www.amazon.com/Unicomp-Classic-Buckling-Spring-Keyboard/dp/B01M7V3M61/ref=sr_1_8 entire keyboards] and [https://www.pckeyboard.com/page/product/USAPLSET separate key caps] for their keyboard range.
 
* mykeyboard.eu sells [https://mykeyboard.eu/catalogue/pbt-crp-r4-alphas-apl_3957/ APL2 key caps] for [[wikipedia:Cherry (company)|Cherry]] switches.
 
Keyboard stickers are available too:
 
* Tindie sells a [https://www.tindie.com/products/russtopia/apl-keyboard-symbol-sticker-set/ Dyalog APL sticker set] for US keyboards.
 
Note that these devices only are visual modifications on regular keyboards; they do not automatically enable entry of APL glyphs into software. For this, one of the below methods is required.
 
== By platform ==


[[File:Adám Brudzewsky's in-browser language bar.png|thumb|right|The in-browser language bar]]
[[File:Adám Brudzewsky's in-browser language bar.png|thumb|right|The in-browser language bar]]
Line 7: Line 24:


[[Adám Brudzewsky]]'s [https://abrudz.github.io/lb/apl  in-browser language bar] adds APL keyboard functionality to most web pages on demand.
[[Adám Brudzewsky]]'s [https://abrudz.github.io/lb/apl  in-browser language bar] adds APL keyboard functionality to most web pages on demand.
[https://daveremba.com/public/apl_vk_demo/  APL VK] is a virtual keyboard for the APL Language for modern mobile devices. 
You can add this to your own web page to provide a means to enter APL symbols into a web based form or editor.
It is similar to the APL language bar but is optimized for mobile devices.  This is work in progress.


=== Text editors ===
=== Text editors ===
Line 17: Line 38:
Most Linux distributions released after mid-2012 have Dyalog keyboard support included with the distribution.
Most Linux distributions released after mid-2012 have Dyalog keyboard support included with the distribution.


[[File:Hacker's Keyboard + APL language.png|thumb|right|Hacker's Keyboard + APL language]]
[[File:Array Hacker's Keyboard.png|thumb|right|Array Hacker's Keyboard]]
 
=== Android ===
=== Android ===


dzaima's [https://github.com/dzaima/hackerskeyboard Hacker's Keyboard + APL language] uses a [[wikipedia:Pointing_device_gesture#Touchpad_and_touchscreen_gestures|long-press]] to access APL glyphs.
* dzaima's [https://github.com/dzaima/hackerskeyboard Array Hacker's Keyboard] uses a [[wikipedia:Pointing_device_gesture#Touchpad_and_touchscreen_gestures|long-press]] to access APL glyphs.
 
* Optima Systems' [https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.athoraya.aplkeys APL Keys] provides both QWERTY keyboard (which uses long-press to select from a list of alternate glyphs), a phone pad, and a symbol view.


=== Windows ===
=== Windows ===


* [[Adám Brudzewsky]]'s [https://github.com/abrudz/Kbd keyboard layouts for Windows], which uses <kbd>AltGr</kbd>.
* [[Adám Brudzewsky]] has [https://github.com/abrudz/Kbd various keyboard English layouts for Windows], which allow <kbd>AltGr</kbd> as shifting key, <kbd>`</kbd> as prefix key, or ASCII symbol composition.
 
* [[Fawn Locke]] offers [https://github.com/awagga/DvorakAPL a number of alternative Dvorak keyboard layouts for Windows], which adopt the functionality of Adám's layouts.
 
* The [https://www.dyalog.com/apl-font-keyboard.htm#tab-1 Dyalog Unicode IME] uses <kbd>Ctrl</kbd>. Unless unselected, this [[wikipedia:Input_method|IME]] is installed by default with [[Dyalog APL]]:<br>[[File:Dyalog_APL_Installer.png|frameless|Dyalog APL IME selected in installer]]
 
==== Troubleshooting ====
Installation of the Dyalog Unicode IME can cause so many layouts to be installed that they get in the way when switching layouts. However, the unneeded layouts can be removed through editing the registry<ref>Chan, Vince. [https://forums.dyalog.com/viewtopic.php?f=14&t=1815&p=7164#p7164 How to remove Dyalog APL IME from various languages (MS WIN)]. Dyalog Forums. November 3, 2021.</ref>


* The [https://www.dyalog.com/apl-font-keyboard.htm#tab-1 Dyalog Unicode IME] uses <kbd>Ctrl</kbd>. It is also possible to install the [[wikipedia:Input_method|IME]] alongside a regular [[Dyalog APL]] installation:<br>[[File:Dyalog_APL_Installer.png|frameless|Dyalog APL IME selected in installer]]
=== macOS ===
To enable these keyboard key mappings on [[wikipedia:macOS|macOS]], the appropriate <code>.keylayout</code> files for your locale must be downloaded and installed in the <code>/Library/Keyboard Layouts</code> directory:
* [[Dyalog Ltd.]] provides keyboard layouts for [https://www.dyalog.com/uploads/files/download.php?file=DyalogAltDK.zip Danish], [https://www.dyalog.com/uploads/files/download.php?file=DyalogAltIT.zip Finnish], [https://www.dyalog.com/uploads/files/download.php?file=DyalogAltIT.zip Italian], [https://www.dyalog.com/uploads/files/download.php?file=DyalogAltUK.zip British], and [https://www.dyalog.com/uploads/files/download.php?file=DyalogAltUS.zip American].
* LdBeth provides a keyboard layout for [https://github.com/LdBeth/APL-JIS Japanese (JIS)].
* [https://aplwiki.com/wiki/Typing_glyphs#ASCII_symbol_composition ASCII symbol composition] US and UK layouts are available from [https://github.com/abrudz/kbd#ascii-symbol-composition-layouts github.com/abrudz/kbd].


== Approaches to Layout and Input ==
=== iOS ===
 
* ohAitch's [https://github.com/ohAitch/APLiOS APLiOS], aimed primarily at iPadOS, provides a number bar and APL symbol layers.
* [https://github.com/gitonthescene/APLKeyboard APLKeyboard] is built with [http://omz-software.com/pythonista/ Pythonista's] keyboard extension.  The keys are a bit small but it's functional.
 
== By method ==


Most of today's APLs use a mapping which derives from the original [[APL\360]] terminals' keyboard layout. For example, Dyalog APL's standard US English layout for is as follows:
Most of today's APLs use a mapping which derives from the original [[APL\360]] terminals' keyboard layout. For example, Dyalog APL's standard US English layout for is as follows:
Line 52: Line 92:
=== Shifting key ===
=== Shifting key ===


It is quite common to use <kbd>Ctrl</kbd> or <kbd>Alt</kbd> or <kbd>AltGr</kbd> (right-side <kbd>Alt</kbd>) as an additional shifting key. For example, <kbd>AltGr</kbd>+<kbd>AltGr</kbd>+<kbd>4</kbd> would give <source lang=apl inline>≤</source> while <kbd>AltGr</kbd>+<kbd>Shift</kbd>+<kbd>4</kbd> would give <source lang=apl inline>⍋</source>.
It is quite common to use <kbd>Ctrl</kbd> or <kbd>Alt</kbd> or <kbd>AltGr</kbd> (right-side <kbd>Alt</kbd>) as an additional shifting key. For example, <kbd>AltGr</kbd>+<kbd>4</kbd> would give <syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>≤</syntaxhighlight> while <kbd>AltGr</kbd>+<kbd>Shift</kbd>+<kbd>4</kbd> would give <syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>⍋</syntaxhighlight>.


* The [https://www.dyalog.com/apl-font-keyboard.htm#tab-1 Dyalog Unicode IME] uses <kbd>Ctrl</kbd>
* The [https://www.dyalog.com/apl-font-keyboard.htm#tab-1 Dyalog Unicode IME] uses <kbd>Ctrl</kbd>
Line 71: Line 111:


[[File:RIDE keyword lookup.png|thumb|right|RIDE keyword lookup]]
[[File:RIDE keyword lookup.png|thumb|right|RIDE keyword lookup]]
=== Long-press ===
dzaima's [https://github.com/dzaima/hackerskeyboard Hacker's Keyboard + APL language] reacts to a [[wikipedia:Pointing_device_gesture#Touchpad_and_touchscreen_gestures|long-press]], popping up a palette that allows selecting any of the APL glyphs associated with that button.
=== Keyword look-up ===
=== Keyword look-up ===


* The [https://github.com/Dyalog/ride/releases/latest Dyalog RIDE] (Remote Integrated Development Environment) allows hitting the prefix key (<kbd>`</kbd> by default, but configurable) twice, followed by the (beginning of the) name of a symbol or a functionality. It then displays a drop-down of choices with arrow keys to indicate choice and the Tab key to insert the symbol. E.g. <kbd>`</kbd>,<kbd>`</kbd>,<kbd>d</kbd>,<kbd>i</kbd>,<kbd>v</kbd>,<kbd>Tab↹</kbd> inserts <source lang=apl inline>÷</source>.
* The [https://github.com/Dyalog/ride/releases/latest Dyalog RIDE] (Remote Integrated Development Environment) allows hitting the prefix key (<kbd>`</kbd> by default, but configurable) twice, followed by the (beginning of the) name of a symbol or a functionality. It then displays a drop-down of choices with arrow keys to indicate choice and the Tab key to insert the symbol. E.g. <kbd>`</kbd>,<kbd>`</kbd>,<kbd>d</kbd>,<kbd>i</kbd>,<kbd>v</kbd>,<kbd>Tab↹</kbd> inserts <syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>÷</syntaxhighlight>.


=== ASCII symbol combination ===
=== ASCII symbol composition ===


* Many APL glyphs can be approximated by overlaying or juxtaposing two ASCII characters. [[ngn/apl]]'s scripted demo interface and [https://abrudz.github.io/lb/apl Adám Brudzewsky's in-browser language bar] allow such a pair of characters and hitting the <kbd>Tab↹</kbd> key to replace them with the corresponding APL character. For example, <kbd><</kbd>,<kbd>-</kbd>,<kbd>Tab↹</kbd> will insert <source lang=apl inline>←</source> and <kbd>T</kbd>,<kbd>o</kbd>,<kbd>Tab↹</kbd> will insert <source lang=apl inline>⍕</source>.
* Many APL glyphs can be approximated by overlaying or juxtaposing two ASCII characters. [[ngn/apl]]'s scripted demo interface and [https://abrudz.github.io/lb/apl Adám Brudzewsky's in-browser language bar] allow such a pair of characters and hitting the <kbd>Tab↹</kbd> key to replace them with the corresponding APL character. For example, <kbd><</kbd>,<kbd>-</kbd>,<kbd>Tab↹</kbd> will insert <syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>←</syntaxhighlight> and <kbd>T</kbd>,<kbd>o</kbd>,<kbd>Tab↹</kbd> will insert <syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>⍕</syntaxhighlight>.


[[File:NARS2000 language bar.png|thumb|right|NARS2000 language bar]]
[[File:NARS2000 language bar.png|thumb|right|NARS2000 language bar]]
Line 88: Line 133:
=== LaTeX ===
=== LaTeX ===


In order to typeset APL using {{LaTeX}}, you need to be sure your {{LaTeX}} engine has full Unicode support. At the time of writing, LuaLaTeX and XeLaTeX are two of the most popular such alternatives, both included with TeX Live.
In order to typeset APL using LaTeX, you need to be sure your LaTeX engine has full Unicode support. At the time of writing, LuaLaTeX and XeLaTeX are two of the most popular such alternatives, both included with TeX Live.


After ensuring you have a {{LaTeX}} engine that is Unicode capable, you need to make sure your .tex document is using a [[Fonts|font]] that has the APL glyphs you want to type. One way to do this is through the fontspec package, as seen in the example template below.
After ensuring you have a LaTeX engine that is Unicode capable, you need to make sure your .tex document is using a [[Fonts|font]] that has the APL glyphs you want to type. One way to do this is through the fontspec package, as seen in the example template below.


To check your setup is fully functional you can try compiling the following template:
To check your setup is fully functional you can try compiling the following template:
<source lang=latex>
[[File:LaTeX APL template.png|thumb|right|Screenshot of the typeset document]]
<syntaxhighlight lang=latex>
\documentclass[11pt]{article}
\documentclass[11pt]{article}


Line 107: Line 153:


\end{document}
\end{document}
</source>
</syntaxhighlight>


Depending on whether you want the whole document to use the APL font or not, you may remove the command to set the main font. If you do so, APL glyphs will be rendered correctly inside code listings and similar environments, but not in the main body of the document.
Depending on whether you want the whole document to use the APL font or not, you may remove the command to set the main font. If you do so, APL glyphs will be rendered correctly inside code listings and similar environments, but not in the main body of the document.


[[File:Dyalog US keyboard.jpg|thumb|right|US keyboard with [[Dyalog APL]] glyphs]]
==== Listings ====
 
LuaLaTeX and XeLaTeX can use the [https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/LaTeX/Source_Code_Listings ''listings'' package] to include APL source with the following document preamble:<ref>Baker, John D. [https://analyzethedatanotthedrivel.org/2011/08/15/typesetting-utf8-apl-code-with-the-latex-lstlisting-package/ Typesetting UTF8 APL code with the LaTeX lstlisting package]. Analyze the Data not the Drivel. August 15, 2011.</ref>
<syntaxhighlight lang=latex>
% set lstlisting to accept UTF8 APL text
\makeatletter
\lst@InputCatcodes
\def\lst@DefEC{%
\lst@CCECUse \lst@ProcessLetter
  ^^80^^81^^82^^83^^84^^85^^86^^87^^88^^89^^8a^^8b^^8c^^8d^^8e^^8f%
  ^^90^^91^^92^^93^^94^^95^^96^^97^^98^^99^^9a^^9b^^9c^^9d^^9e^^9f%
  ^^a0^^a1^^a2^^a3^^a4^^a5^^a6^^a7^^a8^^a9^^aa^^ab^^ac^^ad^^ae^^af%
  ^^b0^^b1^^b2^^b3^^b4^^b5^^b6^^b7^^b8^^b9^^ba^^bb^^bc^^bd^^be^^bf%
  ^^c0^^c1^^c2^^c3^^c4^^c5^^c6^^c7^^c8^^c9^^ca^^cb^^cc^^cd^^ce^^cf%
  ^^d0^^d1^^d2^^d3^^d4^^d5^^d6^^d7^^d8^^d9^^da^^db^^dc^^dd^^de^^df%
  ^^e0^^e1^^e2^^e3^^e4^^e5^^e6^^e7^^e8^^e9^^ea^^eb^^ec^^ed^^ee^^ef%
  ^^f0^^f1^^f2^^f3^^f4^^f5^^f6^^f7^^f8^^f9^^fa^^fb^^fc^^fd^^fe^^ff%
  ^^^^20ac^^^^0153^^^^0152%
  ^^^^20a7^^^^2190^^^^2191^^^^2192^^^^2193^^^^2206^^^^2207^^^^220a%
  ^^^^2218^^^^2228^^^^2229^^^^222a^^^^2235^^^^223c^^^^2260^^^^2261%
  ^^^^2262^^^^2264^^^^2265^^^^2282^^^^2283^^^^2296^^^^22a2^^^^22a3%
  ^^^^22a4^^^^22a5^^^^22c4^^^^2308^^^^230a^^^^2336^^^^2337^^^^2339%
  ^^^^233b^^^^233d^^^^233f^^^^2340^^^^2342^^^^2347^^^^2348^^^^2349%
  ^^^^234b^^^^234e^^^^2350^^^^2352^^^^2355^^^^2357^^^^2359^^^^235d%
  ^^^^235e^^^^235f^^^^2361^^^^2362^^^^2363^^^^2364^^^^2365^^^^2368%
  ^^^^236a^^^^236b^^^^236c^^^^2371^^^^2372^^^^2373^^^^2374^^^^2375%
  ^^^^2377^^^^2378^^^^237a^^^^2395^^^^25af^^^^25ca^^^^25cb%
  ^^00}
\lst@RestoreCatcodes
\makeatother
</syntaxhighlight>
 
=== plainTeX ===
 
LdBeth has made a [https://ldbeth.sdf.org/aplfont.html Type1 version] of [https://github.com/rbanffy/3270font 3270 font] with APL support, suitable for traditional TeX implementations that cannot directly use TTF/OTF fonts.
 
[[File:3270 APL font sample.png|thumb|right|Screenshot of the typeset document]]
<syntaxhighlight lang=latex>
\input apldef.tex
 
\font\apl=3270
 
\apl
 
1234567890{\rm Good?}\NG1+2-3{\rm Mixing some roman}
 
I just want some \IS +-\ML\DV\ST\LG\DQ\LO{}!?\ |\CE\FL\DE\EN\LK\RK\ =\NE\LE<>\GE\EU\SE
 
\AD\OR\NA\NO\ \UA\DA\RU\LU\SS\SQ\GU\GD\ \IO\UI\EP\UE\UU\DU\NT\ /\BL\CS\CB\ ,\BC\RO\RV\CR\TR


== Hardware ==
\DD\RR\PP.\SO\RN\OV{}@\ \QQ\BX\CQ\EQ\MQ\IB\XQ\FM\ \DM\LM\GO\OM\AM\DL\&
A couple of keyboards are being sold with APL symbols pre-printed onto the key caps:


* Dyalog sells [https://www.dyalog.com/apl-font-keyboard.htm#mainContent US English, UK English, and Danish keyboards].
\NG\NL


* Unicomp sells both [https://www.amazon.com/Unicomp-Classic-Buckling-Spring-Keyboard/dp/B01M7V3M61/ref=sr_1_8 entire keyboards] and [https://www.pckeyboard.com/page/product/USAPLSET separate key caps] for their keyboard range.
\obeylines\DL S\IS SUM N;I
S\IS I\IS 0
\GO (N<I\IS I+1)/0
S\IS S+I\ST 2
\GO 2
\DL
\bye
</syntaxhighlight>


== References ==
<references/>
{{APL development}}
{{APL development}}
{{APL glyphs}}
{{APL glyphs}}
[[Category:APL character set]]
[[Category:APL character set]][[Category:Lists]]

Latest revision as of 06:21, 27 September 2022

APL uses a range of special graphic symbols to represent most functions and operators. While keyboard mappings become memorized over time, entering APL characters can frustrate the beginner. However, a study involving high school students found that typing and using APL characters did not hinder the students in any measurable way. There are several convenient ways to enter the glyphs.

US keyboard with Dyalog APL glyphs

Hardware

Once the keyboard map is configured to one's liking, it may be beneficial (especially for new users learning APL) to have a keyboard with APL symbols. There are a few solutions to this, such as purchasing a dedicated desktop keyboard for APL or, for laptops and desktops, obtaining an APL keyboard decal set:

Keyboard stickers are available too:

Note that these devices only are visual modifications on regular keyboards; they do not automatically enable entry of APL glyphs into software. For this, one of the below methods is required.

By platform

The in-browser language bar

Web

Adám Brudzewsky's in-browser language bar adds APL keyboard functionality to most web pages on demand.

APL VK is a virtual keyboard for the APL Language for modern mobile devices. You can add this to your own web page to provide a means to enter APL symbols into a web based form or editor. It is similar to the APL language bar but is optimized for mobile devices. This is work in progress.

Text editors

Keyboard layout extensions exist for several popular text editors like VS Code, Emacs and Vim. This can be an alternative, or complementary, to system-wide settings.

Linux

Main article: Typing glyphs on Linux

Most Linux distributions released after mid-2012 have Dyalog keyboard support included with the distribution.

Array Hacker's Keyboard

Android

  • Optima Systems' APL Keys provides both QWERTY keyboard (which uses long-press to select from a list of alternate glyphs), a phone pad, and a symbol view.

Windows

Troubleshooting

Installation of the Dyalog Unicode IME can cause so many layouts to be installed that they get in the way when switching layouts. However, the unneeded layouts can be removed through editing the registry[1]

macOS

To enable these keyboard key mappings on macOS, the appropriate .keylayout files for your locale must be downloaded and installed in the /Library/Keyboard Layouts directory:

iOS

  • ohAitch's APLiOS, aimed primarily at iPadOS, provides a number bar and APL symbol layers.
  • APLKeyboard is built with Pythonista's keyboard extension. The keys are a bit small but it's functional.

By method

Most of today's APLs use a mapping which derives from the original APL\360 terminals' keyboard layout. For example, Dyalog APL's standard US English layout for is as follows:

┌────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬─────────┐
│~ ⌺ │! ⌶ │@ ⍫ │# ⍒ │$ ⍋ │% ⌽ │^ ⍉ │& ⊖ │* ⍟ │( ⍱ │) ⍲ │_ ! │+ ⌹ │Backspace│
│` ⋄ │1 ¨ │2 ¯ │3 < │4 ≤ │5 = │6 ≥ │7 > │8 ≠ │9 ∨ │0 ∧ │- × │= ÷ │         │
├────┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬──────┤
│Tab    │Q   │W   │E ⍷ │R   │T ⍨ │Y   │U   │I ⍸ │O ⍥ │P ⍣ │{ ⍞ │} ⍬ │| ⊣   │
│       │q ? │w ⍵ │e ∊ │r ⍴ │t ~ │y ↑ │u ↓ │i ⍳ │o ○ │p * │[ ← │] → │\ ⊢   │
├───────┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴──────┤
│Caps    │A   │S   │D   │F   │G   │H   │J ⍤ │K ⌸ │L ⌷ │: ≡ │" ≢ │Enter     │
│Lock    │a ⍺ │s ⌈ │d ⌊ │f _ │g ∇ │h ∆ │j ∘ │k ' │l ⎕ │; ⍎ │' ⍕ │          │
├────────┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──────────┤
│Shift      │Z ⊆ │X   │C   │V   │B   │N   │M   │< ⍪ │> ⍙ │? ⍠ │Shift       │
│           │z ⊂ │x ⊃ │c ∩ │v ∪ │b ⊥ │n ⊤ │m | │, ⍝ │. ⍀ │/ ⌿ │            │
└───────────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────────────┘

Additional charts for other layouts are available.

There are multiple ways to access the glyphs associated with a particular key.

Shifting key

It is quite common to use Ctrl or Alt or AltGr (right-side Alt) as an additional shifting key. For example, AltGr+4 would give while AltGr+Shift+4 would give .

  • APLX uses AltGr with an option to also use Alt

Prefix key

A prefix key is a special key or character which is entered immediately before typing the corresponding key.

  • TryAPL and ngn/apl's scripted demo interface support ` as prefix key.
  • The Dyalog Unicode IME and the Dyalog RIDE (Remote Integrated Development Environment) uses ` by default, but allows choosing any key as prefix key.
RIDE keyword lookup

Long-press

dzaima's Hacker's Keyboard + APL language reacts to a long-press, popping up a palette that allows selecting any of the APL glyphs associated with that button.

Keyword look-up

  • The Dyalog RIDE (Remote Integrated Development Environment) allows hitting the prefix key (` by default, but configurable) twice, followed by the (beginning of the) name of a symbol or a functionality. It then displays a drop-down of choices with arrow keys to indicate choice and the Tab key to insert the symbol. E.g. `,`,d,i,v,Tab↹ inserts ÷.

ASCII symbol composition

  • Many APL glyphs can be approximated by overlaying or juxtaposing two ASCII characters. ngn/apl's scripted demo interface and Adám Brudzewsky's in-browser language bar allow such a pair of characters and hitting the Tab↹ key to replace them with the corresponding APL character. For example, <,-,Tab↹ will insert and T,o,Tab↹ will insert .
NARS2000 language bar

On-screen language bar

Several APL IDEs allow the display of a toolbar with a button for each APL glyph:

LaTeX

In order to typeset APL using LaTeX, you need to be sure your LaTeX engine has full Unicode support. At the time of writing, LuaLaTeX and XeLaTeX are two of the most popular such alternatives, both included with TeX Live.

After ensuring you have a LaTeX engine that is Unicode capable, you need to make sure your .tex document is using a font that has the APL glyphs you want to type. One way to do this is through the fontspec package, as seen in the example template below.

To check your setup is fully functional you can try compiling the following template:

Screenshot of the typeset document
\documentclass[11pt]{article}

\usepackage{fontspec}
\setmainfont{APL385 Unicode}
\setmonofont{APL385 Unicode}[Scale=MatchLowercase]

\begin{document}

I just want some ← +-×÷*⍟⌹○!? |⌈⌊⊥⊤⊣⊢ =≠≤<>≥≡≢ ∨∧⍲⍱ ↑↓⊂⊃⊆⌷⍋⍒ ⍳⍸∊⍷∪∩~ /\textbackslash⌿⍀ ,⍪⍴⌽⊖⍉ ¨⍨⍣.∘⍤⍥@ ⍞⎕⍠⌸⌺⌶⍎⍕ ⋄⍝→⍵⍺∇\& ¯⍬

\texttt{The ``setmonofont'' was needed because of this, otherwise ⍺⌊¯→⍬ wouldn't show properly}.

\end{document}

Depending on whether you want the whole document to use the APL font or not, you may remove the command to set the main font. If you do so, APL glyphs will be rendered correctly inside code listings and similar environments, but not in the main body of the document.

Listings

LuaLaTeX and XeLaTeX can use the listings package to include APL source with the following document preamble:[2]

% set lstlisting to accept UTF8 APL text
\makeatletter
\lst@InputCatcodes
\def\lst@DefEC{%
 \lst@CCECUse \lst@ProcessLetter
  ^^80^^81^^82^^83^^84^^85^^86^^87^^88^^89^^8a^^8b^^8c^^8d^^8e^^8f%
  ^^90^^91^^92^^93^^94^^95^^96^^97^^98^^99^^9a^^9b^^9c^^9d^^9e^^9f%
  ^^a0^^a1^^a2^^a3^^a4^^a5^^a6^^a7^^a8^^a9^^aa^^ab^^ac^^ad^^ae^^af%
  ^^b0^^b1^^b2^^b3^^b4^^b5^^b6^^b7^^b8^^b9^^ba^^bb^^bc^^bd^^be^^bf%
  ^^c0^^c1^^c2^^c3^^c4^^c5^^c6^^c7^^c8^^c9^^ca^^cb^^cc^^cd^^ce^^cf%
  ^^d0^^d1^^d2^^d3^^d4^^d5^^d6^^d7^^d8^^d9^^da^^db^^dc^^dd^^de^^df%
  ^^e0^^e1^^e2^^e3^^e4^^e5^^e6^^e7^^e8^^e9^^ea^^eb^^ec^^ed^^ee^^ef%
  ^^f0^^f1^^f2^^f3^^f4^^f5^^f6^^f7^^f8^^f9^^fa^^fb^^fc^^fd^^fe^^ff%
  ^^^^20ac^^^^0153^^^^0152%
  ^^^^20a7^^^^2190^^^^2191^^^^2192^^^^2193^^^^2206^^^^2207^^^^220a%
  ^^^^2218^^^^2228^^^^2229^^^^222a^^^^2235^^^^223c^^^^2260^^^^2261%
  ^^^^2262^^^^2264^^^^2265^^^^2282^^^^2283^^^^2296^^^^22a2^^^^22a3%
  ^^^^22a4^^^^22a5^^^^22c4^^^^2308^^^^230a^^^^2336^^^^2337^^^^2339%
  ^^^^233b^^^^233d^^^^233f^^^^2340^^^^2342^^^^2347^^^^2348^^^^2349%
  ^^^^234b^^^^234e^^^^2350^^^^2352^^^^2355^^^^2357^^^^2359^^^^235d%
  ^^^^235e^^^^235f^^^^2361^^^^2362^^^^2363^^^^2364^^^^2365^^^^2368%
  ^^^^236a^^^^236b^^^^236c^^^^2371^^^^2372^^^^2373^^^^2374^^^^2375%
  ^^^^2377^^^^2378^^^^237a^^^^2395^^^^25af^^^^25ca^^^^25cb%
  ^^00}
\lst@RestoreCatcodes
\makeatother

plainTeX

LdBeth has made a Type1 version of 3270 font with APL support, suitable for traditional TeX implementations that cannot directly use TTF/OTF fonts.

Screenshot of the typeset document
\input apldef.tex

\font\apl=3270

\apl

1234567890{\rm Good?}\NG1+2-3{\rm Mixing some roman}

I just want some \IS +-\ML\DV\ST\LG\DQ\LO{}!?\ |\CE\FL\DE\EN\LK\RK\ =\NE\LE<>\GE\EU\SE

\AD\OR\NA\NO\ \UA\DA\RU\LU\SS\SQ\GU\GD\ \IO\UI\EP\UE\UU\DU\NT\ /\BL\CS\CB\ ,\BC\RO\RV\CR\TR

\DD\RR\PP.\SO\RN\OV{}@\ \QQ\BX\CQ\EQ\MQ\IB\XQ\FM\ \DM\LM\GO\OM\AM\DL\&

\NG\NL

\obeylines\DL S\IS SUM N;I
S\IS I\IS 0
\GO (N<I\IS I+1)/0
S\IS S+I\ST 2
\GO 2
\DL
\bye

References

  1. Chan, Vince. How to remove Dyalog APL IME from various languages (MS WIN). Dyalog Forums. November 3, 2021.
  2. Baker, John D. Typesetting UTF8 APL code with the LaTeX lstlisting package. Analyze the Data not the Drivel. August 15, 2011.
APL development [edit]
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