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APL uses a large range of [[glyphs|special graphic symbols]] to represent most functions and operators. While keyboard mappings become memorized over time, entering APL characters can frustrate the beginner. However, a study involving high school students found that typing and using APL characters did not hinder the students in any measurable way. There are several convenient ways to enter the glyphs.
APL uses a range of [[glyphs|special graphic symbols]] to represent most functions and operators. While keyboard mappings become [[mnemonics|memorized]] over time, entering APL characters can frustrate the [[learning resources|beginner]]. However, a study involving high school students found that typing and using APL characters did not hinder the students in any measurable way. There are several convenient ways to enter the glyphs.
__TOC__
[[File:Dyalog US keyboard.jpg|thumb|right|US keyboard with [[Dyalog APL]] glyphs]]
== Hardware ==


== How to Set up an APL Keyboard ==
Once the keyboard map is configured to one's liking, it may be beneficial (especially for new users learning APL) to have a keyboard with APL symbols. There are a few solutions to this, such as purchasing a dedicated desktop keyboard for APL or, for laptops and desktops, obtaining an APL keyboard decal set:


=== Text editors ===
* Dyalog sells [https://www.dyalog.com/apl-font-keyboard.htm#mainContent US English, UK English, Danish and German keyboards] with APL glyphs pre-printed onto the key caps.


Keyboard layout extensions exist for several popular [[text editors]] like VS Code, Emacs and Vim. This can be an alternative, or complementary, to system-wide settings.
* Unicomp sells both [https://www.amazon.com/Unicomp-Classic-Buckling-Spring-Keyboard/dp/B01M7V3M61/ref=sr_1_8 entire keyboards] and [https://www.pckeyboard.com/page/product/USAPLSET separate key caps] for their keyboard range.


[[File:Adám Brudzewsky's in-browser language bar.png|thumb|right|The in-browser language bar]]
* mykeyboard.eu sells [https://mykeyboard.eu/catalogue/pbt-crp-r4-alphas-apl_3957/ APL2 key caps] for [[wikipedia:Cherry (company)|Cherry]] switches.
=== Web ===


[[Adám Brudzewsky]]'s [https://abrudz.github.io/lb/apl  in-browser language bar] adds APL keyboard functionality to most web pages on demand.
Keyboard stickers are available too:


=== Windows ===
* Tindie sells a [https://www.tindie.com/products/russtopia/apl-keyboard-symbol-sticker-set/ Dyalog APL sticker set] for US keyboards.


* [[Adám Brudzewsky]]'s [https://github.com/abrudz/Kbd keyboard layouts for Windows], which uses <kbd>AltGr</kbd>.
Note that these devices only are visual modifications on regular keyboards; they do not automatically enable entry of APL glyphs into software. For this, one of the below methods is required.


* The [https://www.dyalog.com/apl-font-keyboard.htm#tab-1 Dyalog Unicode IME] uses <kbd>Ctrl</kbd>. It is also possible to install the [[wikipedia:Input_method|IME]] alongside a regular [[Dyalog APL]] installation:<br>[[File:Dyalog_APL_Installer.png|frameless|Dyalog APL IME selected in installer]]
== By platform ==


[[File:Hacker's Keyboard + APL language.png|thumb|right|Hacker's Keyboard + APL language]]
[[File:Adám Brudzewsky's in-browser language bar.png|thumb|right|The in-browser language bar]]
=== Android ===
=== Web ===


dzaima's [https://github.com/dzaima/hackerskeyboard Hacker's Keyboard + APL language] uses a [[wikipedia:Pointing_device_gesture#Touchpad_and_touchscreen_gestures|long-press]] to access APL glyphs.
[[Adám Brudzewsky]]'s [https://abrudz.github.io/lb/apl  in-browser language bar] adds APL keyboard functionality to most web pages on demand.


=== Linux ===
[https://daveremba.com/public/apl_vk_demo/  APL VK] is a virtual keyboard for the APL Language for modern mobile devices. 
You can add this to your own web page to provide a means to enter APL symbols into a web based form or editor.
It is similar to the APL language bar but is optimized for mobile devices.  This is work in progress.


[[Geoff Streeter]] authored a paper, [https://www.dyalog.com/uploads/conference/dyalog10/presentations/P19_Streeter_Keyboards.pdf Supporting APL keyboards on Linux], which was presented at the [https://aplwiki.com/wiki/Dyalog_user_meeting#Dyalog_.2710 Dyalog '10] user meeting. In this paper, Geoff details how APL keyboards can be supported in [[wikipedia:X_Window_System|X11]] using <source lang=console inline>xkb</source>, the [https://www.x.org/wiki/XKB/ X Keyboard Extension].
=== Text editors ===


Most Linux distributions released after mid-2012 have [https://forums.dyalog.com/viewtopic.php?f=20&t=210 Dyalog keyboard support] included with the distribution.
Keyboard layout extensions exist for several popular [[text editors]] like VS Code, Emacs and Vim. This can be an alternative, or complementary, to system-wide settings.


==== setxkbmap ====
=== Linux ===
{{Main|Typing glyphs on Linux}}


The simplest way to set up an APL keyboard on Linux is with the following <source lang=console inline>setxkbmap</source> command. Enter the following in your terminal emulator of choice:
Most Linux distributions released after mid-2012 have Dyalog keyboard support included with the distribution.


<source lang=console>
[[File:Array Hacker's Keyboard.png|thumb|right|Array Hacker's Keyboard]]
setxkbmap -layout us,apl -variant ,dyalog -option grp:switch
</source>


An explanation:
=== Android ===


* <source lang=console inline>-layout us,apl</source> assigns <source lang=console inline>us</source> ([[wikipedia:American_English|U.S. English]]) to be the primary layout, whereas <source lang=console inline>apl</source> is secondary
* dzaima's [https://github.com/dzaima/hackerskeyboard Array Hacker's Keyboard] uses a [[wikipedia:Pointing_device_gesture#Touchpad_and_touchscreen_gestures|long-press]] to access APL glyphs.


* <source lang=console inline>-option grp:switch</source> assigns <kbd>Right Alt</kbd> to switch to the secondary <source lang=console inline>apl</source> layout when it is pressed, otherwise <source lang=console inline>us</source> is used
* Optima Systems' [https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.athoraya.aplkeys APL Keys] provides both QWERTY keyboard (which uses long-press to select from a list of alternate glyphs), a phone pad, and a symbol view.


* <source lang=console inline>-variant ,dyalog</source> assigns the [[Dyalog APL]] variant to the <source lang=console inline>apl</source> layout which contains modifiations unique to the Dyalog language ('''Note the preceding comma''')
=== Windows ===
 
A full list of keys that can be used to switch layouts is included in <source lang=console inline>/usr/share/X11/xkb/rules/evdev.lst</source> under the <source lang=console inline>option</source> category.
 
'''Note:''' these changes are not permanent; the user will have to select one of a myriad of methods to run the command on startup. Alternatively, if they use one of the [[wikipedia:Desktop_environment|desktop environments]] listed below, they can follow those instructions.
 
==== GNOME ====
 
===== GUI =====
 
# Open the Activities menu; this is located in the top-left corner of a default GNOME 3 session (alternatively, use your <kbd>Super</kbd> key to open the Activities overlay):<br>[[File:Gnome-kbd-setup-1.png|frameless|GNOME Keyboard Step 1: Open Activities Menu]]
# Search for "startup." When the Startup Applications program is highlighted, press the <kbd>Enter</kbd> key to open it: <br>[[File:Gnome-kbd-setup-2.png|frameless|GNOME Keyboard Step 2: Search for Startup Applications]]
#Select the <kbd>Add</kbd> button on the right-hand side:<br>[[File:Gnome-kbd-setup-3.png|frameless|GNOME Keyboard Step 3: Click the <kbd>Add</kbd> button in Startup Applications window]]
#Provide a name, enter your <code>setxkbmap</code> command, and click <kbd>Add</kbd> when finished:<br>[[File:Gnome-kbd-setup-4.png|frameless|GNOME Keyboard Step 4: Enter the relevant information for your command]]
 
===== Terminal =====
 
# Navigate to <code>~/.config/autostart</code> and create a <code>.desktop</code> with any name that will help you remember its function.
# Add the following to the contents of your file, customizing to suit your needs:<source lang=ini>
[Desktop Entry]
Type=Application
Exec=setxkbmap -layout us,apl -variant ,dyalog -option grp:switch
Hidden=false
NoDisplay=false
X-GNOME-Autostart-enabled=true
Name[en_US]=apl-keyboard
Name=apl-keyboard
Comment[en_US]=
Comment=
</source>
 
==== LXDE ====
 
# Prepend an <source lang=console inline>@</source> to the <source lang=console inline>setxkbmap</source> command from above:<br><source lang=console>
@setxkbmap -layout us,apl -variant ,dyalog -option grp:switch
</source>
# Add it as a line in your user's LXDE <source lang=console inline>autostart</source> file, located at:<br><source lang=console>
~/.config/lxsession/LXDE/autostart
</source>
 
For Lubuntu versions up to and including 18.04 (before the LXQt split), the location of <source lang=console inline>autostart</source> is <source lang=console inline>~/.config/lxsession/Lubuntu/autostart</source>.
 
==== LXQt ====
 
===== GUI =====


# From your LXQt panel, navigate to ''Preferences'' → ''LXQt Settings'' → ''Session Settings''; alternatively, enter <source lang=console inline>lxqt-config-session</source> in your terminal emulator. You will be greeted with the following window:<br>[[File:Lxqt-session-settings.png|frameless|LXQt Autostart menu of Session Settings window]]
* [[Adám Brudzewsky]] has [https://github.com/abrudz/Kbd various keyboard English layouts for Windows], which allow <kbd>AltGr</kbd> as shifting key, <kbd>`</kbd> as prefix key, or ASCII symbol composition.
# Select the <source lang=console inline>LXQt Autostart</source> dropdown (it will be highlighted as shown above) and click the <kbd>Add</kbd> button to display the following pop-up window:<br>[[File:Lxqt-add-autostart.png|frameless|LXQt add a new autostart menu item]]
# Provide a name, enter your <code>setxkbmap</code> command, and click <kbd>OK</kbd> when finished.


===== Terminal =====
* [[Fawn Locke]] offers [https://github.com/awagga/DvorakAPL a number of alternative Dvorak keyboard layouts for Windows], which adopt the functionality of Adám's layouts.


The above GUI approach merely creates a <source lang=console inline>.desktop</source> file in the user's <source lang=console inline>~/.config/autostart</source>. Create your own file in the <source lang=console inline>autostart</source> directory whose contents are as follows, to replicate the functionality achieved through the GUI:
* The [https://www.dyalog.com/apl-font-keyboard.htm#tab-1 Dyalog Unicode IME] uses <kbd>Ctrl</kbd>. Unless unselected, this [[wikipedia:Input_method|IME]] is installed by default with [[Dyalog APL]]:<br>[[File:Dyalog_APL_Installer.png|frameless|Dyalog APL IME selected in installer]]


<source lang=ini>
==== Troubleshooting ====
[Desktop Entry]
Installation of the Dyalog Unicode IME can cause so many layouts to be installed that they get in the way when switching layouts. However, the unneeded layouts can be removed through editing the registry<ref>Chan, Vince. [https://forums.dyalog.com/viewtopic.php?f=14&t=1815&p=7164#p7164 How to remove Dyalog APL IME from various languages (MS WIN)]. Dyalog Forums. November 3, 2021.</ref>
Exec=setxkbmap -layout us,apl -variant ,dyalog -option grp:switch
Name=apl-keyboard
OnlyShowIn=LXQt;
Type=Application
Version=1.0
</source>


==== MATE ====
=== macOS ===
To enable these keyboard key mappings on [[wikipedia:macOS|macOS]], the appropriate <code>.keylayout</code> files for your locale must be downloaded and installed in the <code>/Library/Keyboard Layouts</code> directory:
* [[Dyalog Ltd.]] provides keyboard layouts for [https://www.dyalog.com/uploads/files/download.php?file=DyalogAltDK.zip Danish], [https://www.dyalog.com/uploads/files/download.php?file=DyalogAltIT.zip Finnish], [https://www.dyalog.com/uploads/files/download.php?file=DyalogAltIT.zip Italian], [https://www.dyalog.com/uploads/files/download.php?file=DyalogAltUK.zip British], and [https://www.dyalog.com/uploads/files/download.php?file=DyalogAltUS.zip American].
* LdBeth provides a keyboard layout for [https://github.com/LdBeth/APL-JIS Japanese (JIS)].
* [https://aplwiki.com/wiki/Typing_glyphs#ASCII_symbol_composition ASCII symbol composition] US and UK layouts are available from [https://github.com/abrudz/kbd#ascii-symbol-composition-layouts github.com/abrudz/kbd].


===== GUI =====
=== iOS ===


# Open your MATE menu (in the top-left corner of a default environment) and select ''Control Center'' at the bottom of the window:<br>[[File:Mate-kbb-setup-1.png|frameless|Launch the Control Center from the MATE menu]]
* ohAitch's [https://github.com/ohAitch/APLiOS APLiOS], aimed primarily at iPadOS, provides a number bar and APL symbol layers.
# Scroll down through the main window, and under the ''Personal'' category, select ''Startup Applications'':<br>[[File:Mate-kbb-setup-2.png|frameless|Scroll down to the Startup Applications option]]
* [https://github.com/gitonthescene/APLKeyboard APLKeyboard] is built with [http://omz-software.com/pythonista/ Pythonista's] keyboard extension.  The keys are a bit small but it's functional.
# Click the <kbd>Add</kbd> button on the right-hand side:<br>[[File:Mate-kbb-setup-3.png|frameless|Click <kbd>Add</kbd> to add a new startup command]]
# Provide a name, enter your <code>setxkbmap</code> command, and click <kbd>Add</kbd> when finished:<br>[[File:Mate-kbb-setup-4.png|frameless|Enter the setxkbmap command you wish to use]]


===== Terminal =====
== By method ==
 
Navigate to <code>~/.config/autostart</code> and create a <code>.desktop</code> with any name that will help you remember its function.
 
Add the following to the contents of your file, customizing to suit your needs:
 
<source lang=ini>
[Desktop Entry]
Type=Application
Exec=setxkbmap -layout us,apl -variant ,dyalog -option grp:switch
Hidden=false
X-MATE-Autostart-enabled=true
Name[en_US]=apl-keyboard
Name=apl-keyboard
Comment[en_US]=
Comment=
X-MATE-Autostart-Delay=0
</source>
 
==== Xfce ====
 
A tutorial specific to Xfce's config files can be found [https://github.com/hashslingrz/apl-keyboard-xfce at this GitHub repository].
 
== Approaches to Layout and Input ==


Most of today's APLs use a mapping which derives from the original [[APL\360]] terminals' keyboard layout. For example, Dyalog APL's standard US English layout for is as follows:
Most of today's APLs use a mapping which derives from the original [[APL\360]] terminals' keyboard layout. For example, Dyalog APL's standard US English layout for is as follows:
Line 162: Line 92:
=== Shifting key ===
=== Shifting key ===


It is quite common to use <kbd>Ctrl</kbd> or <kbd>Alt</kbd> or <kbd>AltGr</kbd> (right-side <kbd>Alt</kbd>) as an additional shifting key. For example, <kbd>AltGr</kbd>+<kbd>AltGr</kbd>+<kbd>4</kbd> would give <source lang=apl inline>≤</source> while <kbd>AltGr</kbd>+<kbd>Shift</kbd>+<kbd>4</kbd> would give <source lang=apl inline>⍋</source>.
It is quite common to use <kbd>Ctrl</kbd> or <kbd>Alt</kbd> or <kbd>AltGr</kbd> (right-side <kbd>Alt</kbd>) as an additional shifting key. For example, <kbd>AltGr</kbd>+<kbd>4</kbd> would give <syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>≤</syntaxhighlight> while <kbd>AltGr</kbd>+<kbd>Shift</kbd>+<kbd>4</kbd> would give <syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>⍋</syntaxhighlight>.


* The [https://www.dyalog.com/apl-font-keyboard.htm#tab-1 Dyalog Unicode IME] uses <kbd>Ctrl</kbd>
* The [https://www.dyalog.com/apl-font-keyboard.htm#tab-1 Dyalog Unicode IME] uses <kbd>Ctrl</kbd>
Line 181: Line 111:


[[File:RIDE keyword lookup.png|thumb|right|RIDE keyword lookup]]
[[File:RIDE keyword lookup.png|thumb|right|RIDE keyword lookup]]
=== Long-press ===
dzaima's [https://github.com/dzaima/hackerskeyboard Hacker's Keyboard + APL language] reacts to a [[wikipedia:Pointing_device_gesture#Touchpad_and_touchscreen_gestures|long-press]], popping up a palette that allows selecting any of the APL glyphs associated with that button.
=== Keyword look-up ===
=== Keyword look-up ===


* The [https://github.com/Dyalog/ride/releases/latest Dyalog RIDE] (Remote Integrated Development Environment) allows hitting the prefix key (<kbd>`</kbd> by default, but configurable) twice, followed by the (beginning of the) name of a symbol or a functionality. It then displays a drop-down of choices with arrow keys to indicate choice and the Tab key to insert the symbol. E.g. <kbd>`</kbd>,<kbd>`</kbd>,<kbd>d</kbd>,<kbd>i</kbd>,<kbd>v</kbd>,<kbd>Tab↹</kbd> inserts <source lang=apl inline>÷</source>.
* The [https://github.com/Dyalog/ride/releases/latest Dyalog RIDE] (Remote Integrated Development Environment) allows hitting the prefix key (<kbd>`</kbd> by default, but configurable) twice, followed by the (beginning of the) name of a symbol or a functionality. It then displays a drop-down of choices with arrow keys to indicate choice and the Tab key to insert the symbol. E.g. <kbd>`</kbd>,<kbd>`</kbd>,<kbd>d</kbd>,<kbd>i</kbd>,<kbd>v</kbd>,<kbd>Tab↹</kbd> inserts <syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>÷</syntaxhighlight>.


=== ASCII symbol combination ===
=== ASCII symbol composition ===


* Many APL glyphs can be approximated by overlaying or juxtaposing two ASCII characters. [[ngn/apl]]'s scripted demo interface and [https://abrudz.github.io/lb/apl Adám Brudzewsky's in-browser language bar] allow such a pair of characters and hitting the <kbd>Tab↹</kbd> key to replace them with the corresponding APL character. For example, <kbd><</kbd>,<kbd>-</kbd>,<kbd>Tab↹</kbd> will insert <source lang=apl inline>←</source> and <kbd>T</kbd>,<kbd>o</kbd>,<kbd>Tab↹</kbd> will insert <source lang=apl inline>⍕</source>.
* Many APL glyphs can be approximated by overlaying or juxtaposing two ASCII characters. [[ngn/apl]]'s scripted demo interface and [https://abrudz.github.io/lb/apl Adám Brudzewsky's in-browser language bar] allow such a pair of characters and hitting the <kbd>Tab↹</kbd> key to replace them with the corresponding APL character. For example, <kbd><</kbd>,<kbd>-</kbd>,<kbd>Tab↹</kbd> will insert <syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>←</syntaxhighlight> and <kbd>T</kbd>,<kbd>o</kbd>,<kbd>Tab↹</kbd> will insert <syntaxhighlight lang=apl inline>⍕</syntaxhighlight>.


[[File:NARS2000 language bar.png|thumb|right|NARS2000 language bar]]
[[File:NARS2000 language bar.png|thumb|right|NARS2000 language bar]]
Line 196: Line 131:
* [[Dyalog APL]], [[NARS2000]], [[APL2]] and [[ngn/apl]]'s scripted demo interface  all have this feature.
* [[Dyalog APL]], [[NARS2000]], [[APL2]] and [[ngn/apl]]'s scripted demo interface  all have this feature.


[[File:Dyalog US keyboard.jpg|thumb|right|US keyboard with [[Dyalog APL]] glyphs]]
=== LaTeX ===
== Hardware ==
 
A couple of keyboards are being sold with APL symbols pre-printed onto the key caps:
In order to typeset APL using LaTeX, you need to be sure your LaTeX engine has full Unicode support. At the time of writing, LuaLaTeX and XeLaTeX are two of the most popular such alternatives, both included with TeX Live.
 
After ensuring you have a LaTeX engine that is Unicode capable, you need to make sure your .tex document is using a [[Fonts|font]] that has the APL glyphs you want to type. One way to do this is through the fontspec package, as seen in the example template below.
 
To check your setup is fully functional you can try compiling the following template:
[[File:LaTeX APL template.png|thumb|right|Screenshot of the typeset document]]
<syntaxhighlight lang=latex>
\documentclass[11pt]{article}
 
\usepackage{fontspec}
\setmainfont{APL385 Unicode}
\setmonofont{APL385 Unicode}[Scale=MatchLowercase]
 
\begin{document}
 
I just want some ← +-×÷*⍟⌹○!? |⌈⌊⊥⊤⊣⊢ =≠≤<>≥≡≢ ∨∧⍲⍱ ↑↓⊂⊃⊆⌷⍋⍒ ⍳⍸∊⍷∪∩~ /\textbackslash⌿⍀ ,⍪⍴⌽⊖⍉ ¨⍨⍣.∘⍤⍥@ ⍞⎕⍠⌸⌺⌶⍎⍕ ⋄⍝→⍵⍺∇\& ¯⍬
 
\texttt{The ``setmonofont'' was needed because of this, otherwise ⍺⌊¯→⍬ wouldn't show properly}.
 
\end{document}
</syntaxhighlight>
 
Depending on whether you want the whole document to use the APL font or not, you may remove the command to set the main font. If you do so, APL glyphs will be rendered correctly inside code listings and similar environments, but not in the main body of the document.
 
==== Listings ====
 
LuaLaTeX and XeLaTeX can use the [https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/LaTeX/Source_Code_Listings ''listings'' package] to include APL source with the following document preamble:<ref>Baker, John D. [https://analyzethedatanotthedrivel.org/2011/08/15/typesetting-utf8-apl-code-with-the-latex-lstlisting-package/ Typesetting UTF8 APL code with the LaTeX lstlisting package]. Analyze the Data not the Drivel. August 15, 2011.</ref>
<syntaxhighlight lang=latex>
% set lstlisting to accept UTF8 APL text
\makeatletter
\lst@InputCatcodes
\def\lst@DefEC{%
\lst@CCECUse \lst@ProcessLetter
  ^^80^^81^^82^^83^^84^^85^^86^^87^^88^^89^^8a^^8b^^8c^^8d^^8e^^8f%
  ^^90^^91^^92^^93^^94^^95^^96^^97^^98^^99^^9a^^9b^^9c^^9d^^9e^^9f%
  ^^a0^^a1^^a2^^a3^^a4^^a5^^a6^^a7^^a8^^a9^^aa^^ab^^ac^^ad^^ae^^af%
  ^^b0^^b1^^b2^^b3^^b4^^b5^^b6^^b7^^b8^^b9^^ba^^bb^^bc^^bd^^be^^bf%
  ^^c0^^c1^^c2^^c3^^c4^^c5^^c6^^c7^^c8^^c9^^ca^^cb^^cc^^cd^^ce^^cf%
  ^^d0^^d1^^d2^^d3^^d4^^d5^^d6^^d7^^d8^^d9^^da^^db^^dc^^dd^^de^^df%
  ^^e0^^e1^^e2^^e3^^e4^^e5^^e6^^e7^^e8^^e9^^ea^^eb^^ec^^ed^^ee^^ef%
  ^^f0^^f1^^f2^^f3^^f4^^f5^^f6^^f7^^f8^^f9^^fa^^fb^^fc^^fd^^fe^^ff%
  ^^^^20ac^^^^0153^^^^0152%
  ^^^^20a7^^^^2190^^^^2191^^^^2192^^^^2193^^^^2206^^^^2207^^^^220a%
  ^^^^2218^^^^2228^^^^2229^^^^222a^^^^2235^^^^223c^^^^2260^^^^2261%
  ^^^^2262^^^^2264^^^^2265^^^^2282^^^^2283^^^^2296^^^^22a2^^^^22a3%
  ^^^^22a4^^^^22a5^^^^22c4^^^^2308^^^^230a^^^^2336^^^^2337^^^^2339%
  ^^^^233b^^^^233d^^^^233f^^^^2340^^^^2342^^^^2347^^^^2348^^^^2349%
  ^^^^234b^^^^234e^^^^2350^^^^2352^^^^2355^^^^2357^^^^2359^^^^235d%
  ^^^^235e^^^^235f^^^^2361^^^^2362^^^^2363^^^^2364^^^^2365^^^^2368%
  ^^^^236a^^^^236b^^^^236c^^^^2371^^^^2372^^^^2373^^^^2374^^^^2375%
  ^^^^2377^^^^2378^^^^237a^^^^2395^^^^25af^^^^25ca^^^^25cb%
  ^^00}
\lst@RestoreCatcodes
\makeatother
</syntaxhighlight>
 
=== plainTeX ===
 
LdBeth has made a [https://ldbeth.sdf.org/aplfont.html Type1 version] of [https://github.com/rbanffy/3270font 3270 font] with APL support, suitable for traditional TeX implementations that cannot directly use TTF/OTF fonts.
 
[[File:3270 APL font sample.png|thumb|right|Screenshot of the typeset document]]
<syntaxhighlight lang=latex>
\input apldef.tex
 
\font\apl=3270
 
\apl
 
1234567890{\rm Good?}\NG1+2-3{\rm Mixing some roman}
 
I just want some \IS +-\ML\DV\ST\LG\DQ\LO{}!?\ |\CE\FL\DE\EN\LK\RK\ =\NE\LE<>\GE\EU\SE
 
\AD\OR\NA\NO\ \UA\DA\RU\LU\SS\SQ\GU\GD\ \IO\UI\EP\UE\UU\DU\NT\ /\BL\CS\CB\ ,\BC\RO\RV\CR\TR
 
\DD\RR\PP.\SO\RN\OV{}@\ \QQ\BX\CQ\EQ\MQ\IB\XQ\FM\ \DM\LM\GO\OM\AM\DL\&


* Dyalog sells [https://www.dyalog.com/apl-font-keyboard.htm#mainContent US English, UK English, and Danish keyboards].
\NG\NL


* Unicomp sells both [https://www.amazon.com/Unicomp-Classic-Buckling-Spring-Keyboard/dp/B01M7V3M61/ref=sr_1_8 entire keyboards] and [https://www.pckeyboard.com/page/product/USAPLSET separate key caps] for their keyboard range.
\obeylines\DL S\IS SUM N;I
S\IS I\IS 0
\GO (N<I\IS I+1)/0
S\IS S+I\ST 2
\GO 2
\DL
\bye
</syntaxhighlight>


== References ==
<references/>
{{APL development}}
{{APL development}}
{{APL glyphs}}
{{APL glyphs}}
[[Category:APL character set]]
[[Category:APL character set]][[Category:Lists]]

Latest revision as of 06:21, 27 September 2022

APL uses a range of special graphic symbols to represent most functions and operators. While keyboard mappings become memorized over time, entering APL characters can frustrate the beginner. However, a study involving high school students found that typing and using APL characters did not hinder the students in any measurable way. There are several convenient ways to enter the glyphs.

US keyboard with Dyalog APL glyphs

Hardware

Once the keyboard map is configured to one's liking, it may be beneficial (especially for new users learning APL) to have a keyboard with APL symbols. There are a few solutions to this, such as purchasing a dedicated desktop keyboard for APL or, for laptops and desktops, obtaining an APL keyboard decal set:

Keyboard stickers are available too:

Note that these devices only are visual modifications on regular keyboards; they do not automatically enable entry of APL glyphs into software. For this, one of the below methods is required.

By platform

The in-browser language bar

Web

Adám Brudzewsky's in-browser language bar adds APL keyboard functionality to most web pages on demand.

APL VK is a virtual keyboard for the APL Language for modern mobile devices. You can add this to your own web page to provide a means to enter APL symbols into a web based form or editor. It is similar to the APL language bar but is optimized for mobile devices. This is work in progress.

Text editors

Keyboard layout extensions exist for several popular text editors like VS Code, Emacs and Vim. This can be an alternative, or complementary, to system-wide settings.

Linux

Main article: Typing glyphs on Linux

Most Linux distributions released after mid-2012 have Dyalog keyboard support included with the distribution.

Array Hacker's Keyboard

Android

  • Optima Systems' APL Keys provides both QWERTY keyboard (which uses long-press to select from a list of alternate glyphs), a phone pad, and a symbol view.

Windows

Troubleshooting

Installation of the Dyalog Unicode IME can cause so many layouts to be installed that they get in the way when switching layouts. However, the unneeded layouts can be removed through editing the registry[1]

macOS

To enable these keyboard key mappings on macOS, the appropriate .keylayout files for your locale must be downloaded and installed in the /Library/Keyboard Layouts directory:

iOS

  • ohAitch's APLiOS, aimed primarily at iPadOS, provides a number bar and APL symbol layers.
  • APLKeyboard is built with Pythonista's keyboard extension. The keys are a bit small but it's functional.

By method

Most of today's APLs use a mapping which derives from the original APL\360 terminals' keyboard layout. For example, Dyalog APL's standard US English layout for is as follows:

┌────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬────┬─────────┐
│~ ⌺ │! ⌶ │@ ⍫ │# ⍒ │$ ⍋ │% ⌽ │^ ⍉ │& ⊖ │* ⍟ │( ⍱ │) ⍲ │_ ! │+ ⌹ │Backspace│
│` ⋄ │1 ¨ │2 ¯ │3 < │4 ≤ │5 = │6 ≥ │7 > │8 ≠ │9 ∨ │0 ∧ │- × │= ÷ │         │
├────┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬──────┤
│Tab    │Q   │W   │E ⍷ │R   │T ⍨ │Y   │U   │I ⍸ │O ⍥ │P ⍣ │{ ⍞ │} ⍬ │| ⊣   │
│       │q ? │w ⍵ │e ∊ │r ⍴ │t ~ │y ↑ │u ↓ │i ⍳ │o ○ │p * │[ ← │] → │\ ⊢   │
├───────┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴┬───┴──────┤
│Caps    │A   │S   │D   │F   │G   │H   │J ⍤ │K ⌸ │L ⌷ │: ≡ │" ≢ │Enter     │
│Lock    │a ⍺ │s ⌈ │d ⌊ │f _ │g ∇ │h ∆ │j ∘ │k ' │l ⎕ │; ⍎ │' ⍕ │          │
├────────┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──┬─┴──────────┤
│Shift      │Z ⊆ │X   │C   │V   │B   │N   │M   │< ⍪ │> ⍙ │? ⍠ │Shift       │
│           │z ⊂ │x ⊃ │c ∩ │v ∪ │b ⊥ │n ⊤ │m | │, ⍝ │. ⍀ │/ ⌿ │            │
└───────────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────┴────────────┘

Additional charts for other layouts are available.

There are multiple ways to access the glyphs associated with a particular key.

Shifting key

It is quite common to use Ctrl or Alt or AltGr (right-side Alt) as an additional shifting key. For example, AltGr+4 would give while AltGr+Shift+4 would give .

  • APLX uses AltGr with an option to also use Alt

Prefix key

A prefix key is a special key or character which is entered immediately before typing the corresponding key.

  • TryAPL and ngn/apl's scripted demo interface support ` as prefix key.
  • The Dyalog Unicode IME and the Dyalog RIDE (Remote Integrated Development Environment) uses ` by default, but allows choosing any key as prefix key.
RIDE keyword lookup

Long-press

dzaima's Hacker's Keyboard + APL language reacts to a long-press, popping up a palette that allows selecting any of the APL glyphs associated with that button.

Keyword look-up

  • The Dyalog RIDE (Remote Integrated Development Environment) allows hitting the prefix key (` by default, but configurable) twice, followed by the (beginning of the) name of a symbol or a functionality. It then displays a drop-down of choices with arrow keys to indicate choice and the Tab key to insert the symbol. E.g. `,`,d,i,v,Tab↹ inserts ÷.

ASCII symbol composition

  • Many APL glyphs can be approximated by overlaying or juxtaposing two ASCII characters. ngn/apl's scripted demo interface and Adám Brudzewsky's in-browser language bar allow such a pair of characters and hitting the Tab↹ key to replace them with the corresponding APL character. For example, <,-,Tab↹ will insert and T,o,Tab↹ will insert .
NARS2000 language bar

On-screen language bar

Several APL IDEs allow the display of a toolbar with a button for each APL glyph:

LaTeX

In order to typeset APL using LaTeX, you need to be sure your LaTeX engine has full Unicode support. At the time of writing, LuaLaTeX and XeLaTeX are two of the most popular such alternatives, both included with TeX Live.

After ensuring you have a LaTeX engine that is Unicode capable, you need to make sure your .tex document is using a font that has the APL glyphs you want to type. One way to do this is through the fontspec package, as seen in the example template below.

To check your setup is fully functional you can try compiling the following template:

Screenshot of the typeset document
\documentclass[11pt]{article}

\usepackage{fontspec}
\setmainfont{APL385 Unicode}
\setmonofont{APL385 Unicode}[Scale=MatchLowercase]

\begin{document}

I just want some ← +-×÷*⍟⌹○!? |⌈⌊⊥⊤⊣⊢ =≠≤<>≥≡≢ ∨∧⍲⍱ ↑↓⊂⊃⊆⌷⍋⍒ ⍳⍸∊⍷∪∩~ /\textbackslash⌿⍀ ,⍪⍴⌽⊖⍉ ¨⍨⍣.∘⍤⍥@ ⍞⎕⍠⌸⌺⌶⍎⍕ ⋄⍝→⍵⍺∇\& ¯⍬

\texttt{The ``setmonofont'' was needed because of this, otherwise ⍺⌊¯→⍬ wouldn't show properly}.

\end{document}

Depending on whether you want the whole document to use the APL font or not, you may remove the command to set the main font. If you do so, APL glyphs will be rendered correctly inside code listings and similar environments, but not in the main body of the document.

Listings

LuaLaTeX and XeLaTeX can use the listings package to include APL source with the following document preamble:[2]

% set lstlisting to accept UTF8 APL text
\makeatletter
\lst@InputCatcodes
\def\lst@DefEC{%
 \lst@CCECUse \lst@ProcessLetter
  ^^80^^81^^82^^83^^84^^85^^86^^87^^88^^89^^8a^^8b^^8c^^8d^^8e^^8f%
  ^^90^^91^^92^^93^^94^^95^^96^^97^^98^^99^^9a^^9b^^9c^^9d^^9e^^9f%
  ^^a0^^a1^^a2^^a3^^a4^^a5^^a6^^a7^^a8^^a9^^aa^^ab^^ac^^ad^^ae^^af%
  ^^b0^^b1^^b2^^b3^^b4^^b5^^b6^^b7^^b8^^b9^^ba^^bb^^bc^^bd^^be^^bf%
  ^^c0^^c1^^c2^^c3^^c4^^c5^^c6^^c7^^c8^^c9^^ca^^cb^^cc^^cd^^ce^^cf%
  ^^d0^^d1^^d2^^d3^^d4^^d5^^d6^^d7^^d8^^d9^^da^^db^^dc^^dd^^de^^df%
  ^^e0^^e1^^e2^^e3^^e4^^e5^^e6^^e7^^e8^^e9^^ea^^eb^^ec^^ed^^ee^^ef%
  ^^f0^^f1^^f2^^f3^^f4^^f5^^f6^^f7^^f8^^f9^^fa^^fb^^fc^^fd^^fe^^ff%
  ^^^^20ac^^^^0153^^^^0152%
  ^^^^20a7^^^^2190^^^^2191^^^^2192^^^^2193^^^^2206^^^^2207^^^^220a%
  ^^^^2218^^^^2228^^^^2229^^^^222a^^^^2235^^^^223c^^^^2260^^^^2261%
  ^^^^2262^^^^2264^^^^2265^^^^2282^^^^2283^^^^2296^^^^22a2^^^^22a3%
  ^^^^22a4^^^^22a5^^^^22c4^^^^2308^^^^230a^^^^2336^^^^2337^^^^2339%
  ^^^^233b^^^^233d^^^^233f^^^^2340^^^^2342^^^^2347^^^^2348^^^^2349%
  ^^^^234b^^^^234e^^^^2350^^^^2352^^^^2355^^^^2357^^^^2359^^^^235d%
  ^^^^235e^^^^235f^^^^2361^^^^2362^^^^2363^^^^2364^^^^2365^^^^2368%
  ^^^^236a^^^^236b^^^^236c^^^^2371^^^^2372^^^^2373^^^^2374^^^^2375%
  ^^^^2377^^^^2378^^^^237a^^^^2395^^^^25af^^^^25ca^^^^25cb%
  ^^00}
\lst@RestoreCatcodes
\makeatother

plainTeX

LdBeth has made a Type1 version of 3270 font with APL support, suitable for traditional TeX implementations that cannot directly use TTF/OTF fonts.

Screenshot of the typeset document
\input apldef.tex

\font\apl=3270

\apl

1234567890{\rm Good?}\NG1+2-3{\rm Mixing some roman}

I just want some \IS +-\ML\DV\ST\LG\DQ\LO{}!?\ |\CE\FL\DE\EN\LK\RK\ =\NE\LE<>\GE\EU\SE

\AD\OR\NA\NO\ \UA\DA\RU\LU\SS\SQ\GU\GD\ \IO\UI\EP\UE\UU\DU\NT\ /\BL\CS\CB\ ,\BC\RO\RV\CR\TR

\DD\RR\PP.\SO\RN\OV{}@\ \QQ\BX\CQ\EQ\MQ\IB\XQ\FM\ \DM\LM\GO\OM\AM\DL\&

\NG\NL

\obeylines\DL S\IS SUM N;I
S\IS I\IS 0
\GO (N<I\IS I+1)/0
S\IS S+I\ST 2
\GO 2
\DL
\bye

References

  1. Chan, Vince. How to remove Dyalog APL IME from various languages (MS WIN). Dyalog Forums. November 3, 2021.
  2. Baker, John D. Typesetting UTF8 APL code with the LaTeX lstlisting package. Analyze the Data not the Drivel. August 15, 2011.
APL development [edit]
Interface SessionTyping glyphs (on Linux) ∙ FontsText editors
Publications IntroductionsLearning resourcesSimple examplesAdvanced examplesMnemonicsStandardsA Dictionary of APLCase studiesDocumentation suitesBooksPapersVideosPeriodicalsTerminology (Chinese, German) ∙ Neural networksError trapping with Dyalog APL (in forms)
Sharing code Backwards compatibilityAPLcartAPLTreeAPL-CationDfns workspaceTatinCider
Implementation Developers (APL2000, Dyalog, GNU APL community, IBM, IPSA, STSC) ∙ ResourcesOpen-sourceMagic functionPerformanceAPL hardware
APL glyphs [edit]
Information GlyphTyping glyphs (on Linux) ∙ UnicodeFontsMnemonicsOverstrikesMigration level
Individual glyphs Jot () ∙ Right Shoe () ∙ Up Arrow () ∙ Zilde () ∙ High minus (¯) ∙ Dot (.) ∙ Del ()