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STSC's APL*PLUS Nested Arrays System (acronymized NARS, from "Nested Array Research System") was the first commercial nested APL implementation. Drawing on work by Jim Brown, Trenchard More, and development manager Bob Smith, NARS introduced a new set of functions for working with arrays that contain arrays, as well as many new operators such as Power.[2] It was heavily influenced by Ken Iverson's 1978 paper Operators and Functions, and as a result features the first implementations of many primitives that were later added to SHARP APL and J under Iverson's direct supervision.


NARS was an extension of APL*PLUS, which used the APL.SV primitive set, except for Execute (). Only new primitives are shown here, with existing cases in parentheses.


Glyph Monadic Dyadic
Enclose Partitioned Enclose
Disclose or First Pick
Simple (NARS) Equivalent
Not-Simple Inequivalent
Split (Drop)
Mix (Take)
Unique Union
~ Set Difference
Catenate along the First Dimension

Additionally, Index Generator was extended to allow a vector argument, Replicate and Expand were extended to allow integer left arguments, and Reshape was extended to allow an empty right argument (using fill elements).


Syntax Monadic call Dyadic call
f/ (Reduction) Dyadic Reduction (Windowed Reduction)
f\ (Scan) Dyadic Scan
f¨ Each
f Commute
fB Power
f⍣∘ Power Limit
f⍣∘ Power Series
fg Composition (Beside)
Ag Composition (Bind)
fg Dual
∘.g Function Table (Outer Product)
A Convolution operator
A∘/ Mask
A∘\ Mesh
Direct definition
B Monadic
A Dyadic
AB Ambivalent

Other functionality


APL dialects [edit]
Maintained APL+WinAPL2APL64APL\ivApletteAprilCo-dfnsDyalog APLdzaima/APLExtended Dyalog APLGNU APLKAPNARS2000Pometo
Historical A Programming LanguageA+ (A) ∙ APL#APL\360APL/700APL\1130APL\3000APL.68000APL*PLUSAPL.jlAPL.SVAPLXIverson notationIVSYS/7090NARSngn/aplopenAPLOperators and FunctionsPATRowanSAXSHARP APLRationalized APLVisualAPL (APLNext) ∙ VS APLYork APL
Derivatives AHPLBQNCoSyELIGleeIIvyJJellyJellyfishK (Q, KDB+) ∙ Lang5NialRAD
Overviews Timeline of array languagesTimeline of influential array languagesFamily tree of array languages